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Current Affairs

Typhoid vaccine

Date: 07 December 2019 Tags: Biotechnology

Issue

A typhoid vaccine (Typbar TCV) developed by the Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech has shown 81.6% efficacy in preventing typhoid fever at 12 months in a Phase-III clinical trial.

 

Background

The vaccine confers protection two-three weeks after vaccination. The duration of protection is currently not known. The trial was carried out in Nepal in over 10,000 children who received the vaccine.

 

Details

  • A single does of the vaccine was found to be effective in preventing typhoid in children aged nine months to 16 years.

  • The Typbar TCV vaccine was recommended by WHO’s Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization (WHO-SAGE) in December 2017. WHO prequalified the vaccine in January 2018.

  • Nearly 11 million fall sick due to typhoid and about 1,17,000 deaths are reported each year. The bacteria spread through contaminated food or water.

  • The Typbar TCV typhoid vaccine tested in Nepal is a conjugate vaccine. Conjugate vaccine is one in which the is chemically linked to a carrier protein.

  • Two other typhoid vaccines such as polysaccharide typhoid vaccine and live weakened typhoid vaccine  are already used commercially. But the efficacy of the vaccines to protect against typhoid is lower than the conjugate vaccine that was tested in Nepal.

  • The conjugate vaccine can be given to babies as young as six months, while the other two vaccines cannot be given to children below two years of age.

  • While typhoid bacteria can be treated with antibiotics, the microbes have developed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Multi-drug resistant typhoid bacteria (XDR) are seen in south Asia including India. 

  • In Pakistan, a strain of typhoid has developed resistance to all but one of the antibiotics used to treat the disease. Pakistan is the first country to introduce the typhoid conjugate vaccine as part of its national immunisation programme. 

Typhoid

  • Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to a specific type of Salmonella that causes symptoms. Typhoid fever spreads through contaminated food and water.

  • Symptoms include high fever, headache, stomach pain, weakness, vomiting and loose stools. Treatment includes antibiotics and fluids.