Quantum computing
Date: 24 October 2019 Tags: Fourth Industrial RevolutionIssue
Google said it had achieved a breakthrough in computer research, by solving a complex problem in minutes with a socalled quantum computer that would take today’s most powerful supercomputer thousands of years to crack.
Background
Google developed a microprocessor, named Sycamore, that packs a total of 54 qubits. In their experiment, the researchers were able to get 53 of the qubits, connected to each other in a lattice pattern to interact in a socalled quantum state.
Details

Quantum supremacy describes the ability of a quantum computer to outperform their classical counterparts.

Traditional computing relies on bits, or ones and zeros, quantum computing uses quantum bits, or qubits, that can be both one and zero at the same time.

This property, called superposition, multiplies exponentially as qubits become entangled with each other. The more qubits that can be strung together, the vastly more powerful a quantum computer becomes.

The researchers set the quantum computer a complex task to detect patterns in a series of seemingly random numbers. It solved the problem in 3 minutes and 20 seconds.

They estimated that the same problem would take 10,000 years for a Summit supercomputer , the most powerful in the world today to solve.
Quantum computing

Quantum computers perform calculations based on the probability of an object's state before it is measured  instead of just 1s or 0s  which means they have the potential to process exponentially more data compared to classical computers.

Classical computers carry out logical operations using the definite position of a physical state.

These are usually binary, meaning its operations are based on one of two positions. A single state  such as on or off, up or down, 1 or 0  is called a bit.

In quantum computing, operations instead use the quantum state of an object to produce what's known as a qubit.

These states are the undefined properties of an object before they've been detected, such as the spin of an electron or the polarisation of a photon.
Qubits

In quantum computing, a qubit (/?kju?b?t/) or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is the basic unit of quantum information, the quantum version of the classical binary bit physically realized with a twostate device.

A qubit is a twostate (or twolevel) quantummechanical system, one of the simplest quantum systems displaying the peculiarity of quantum mechanics.

In a classical system, a bit would have to be in one state or the other. However, quantum mechanics allows the qubit to be in a coherent superposition of both states/levels simultaneously.