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Current Affairs


Date: 16 March 2022 Tags: Military


The US has been sending military aid to Ukraine to fight against invading Russian military. The equipments include MANPADS.



  • Man-Portable Air-Defense Systems (MANPADS) are shoulder-fired missiles that can take down aircrafts from ground.

  • They include weapons such as ground-to-air stinger missiles, which have been increasingly used to attack aircrafts.



  • MANPADS were invented in the 1950s to provide military ground forces with protection from jet aircraft. 

  • These weapons have detection rage of 10km and engagement range of about 6 km. Targets flying above this height are safe.



  • Command guidance (CLOS) missiles will need the operator to visually acquire the target and then use radio control to guide the flight path.

  • Laser guided missiles will be guided using a sensors and Laser beam, which has to be pointed on the target till impact by the controller.


Types of MANPADS

  • First generation

US Redeye, Soviet 9K 32 Strela-2, Chinese HN-5


  • Second generation

U.S. Stinger, the Soviet Strela-3, Chinese FN-6


  • Third generation 

French Mistral, the Soviet 9K 38 Igla, US Stingers B


  • Fourth generation

FIM-92 Stinger Block 2, Russian Verba, Chinese QW-4, Japanese Type 91


Misuse of MANPADS

  • US-made MANPADS have fallen into the hands of Mujahedeen in Afghanistan. They have used it to attack civilians.

  • Russia has been supplying these MANPADS to countries such as Iraq and Venezuela to intensify fighting.

  • Possession, export, and trafficking of such weapons are highly controlled to prevent use of these weapons by terrorist groups against civilian targets.