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Current Affairs

Declining Maternal Mortality Ratio

Date: 10 October 2019 Tags: Miscellaneous

Issue

There has been acceleration in decline of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Under Five Mortality Rate (U5MR) and the Infant Mortality Rate since the launch of the National Health Mission (NHM)/National Rural Health Mission (NRHM).

 

Background

India aims to  reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. At the current rate of decline, India should able to reach its SDG target in this area much before the due year.

 

Details

  • The maternal mortality ratio (MMR) is the ratio of the number of maternal deaths during a given time period per 100,000 live births during the same time-period.

  • A maternal death refers to a female death from any cause related to or aggravated by pregnancy or its management (excluding accidental or incidental causes) during pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy.

Reasons for mortality

  • Direct causes

  • severe bleeding (mostly bleeding after childbirth)

  • infections (usually after childbirth)

  • high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia)

  • complications from delivery.

  • unsafe abortion.

  • Indirect causes are malaria, anaemia,[9] HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular disease, all of which may complicate pregnancy or be aggravated by it.

  • Risk factors associated with increased maternal death include the age of the mother, obesity before becoming pregnant, other pre-existing chronic medical conditions, and cesarean delivery.

Preventing mortality.

  • Prenatal care

It is recommended that expectant mothers receive at least four antenatal visits to check and monitor the health of mother and fetus.

  • Skilled birth attendance

Emergency backup such as doctors, nurses and midwives who have the skills to manage normal deliveries and recognize the onset of complications.

  • Emergency obstetric care

To address the major causes of maternal death which are hemorrhage, sepsis, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disorders and obstructed labour.

  • Postnatal care

Providing care till six weeks following delivery. During this time, bleeding, sepsis and hypertensive disorders can occur, and newborns are extremely vulnerable in the immediate aftermath of birth.