Check Daily Current Affairs, For More Call On 9354229384, 9354252518.

Current Affairs

Anti-biotic resistance in E.coli observed

Date: 02 September 2019 Tags: Miscellaneous

Issue

 

Low concentrations of antibiotics can cause resistance to evolve among bacteria. A  group of researchers from IISER Pune have conducted research to explore how exactly resistance happens.

 

Background

 

Bacteria develop drug resistance both when they are within the body and outside. The fact that antibiotics are unevenly distributed within the body or intake of drugs could be stopped midway can lead to evolution of drug resistance.

 

Details

  • Researchers have studied how resistance to the antibiotic rifampicin evolves in E. coli under two conditions  when the antibiotic is present in low or high concentrations, and when there is steady or pulsed supply of antibiotics.

  • The process of evolution of drug resistance appears to be rapid. It was found that E. coli can evolve resistance to rifampicin within a few generations of drug exposure.

  • A characteristic of some drug-resistant strains of bacteria is that they do not live in isolation but get connected to each other, forming biofilms. Using genetics and biochemistry, the researchers found that when under exposure to low concentrations of rifampicin, the E. coli tend to form biofilms.

  • It was also found that biolfilm formation was mediated by the activation of particular gene called the fim operon promoter. Activation of the gene allowed the expression of a type of fimbriae, a thread-like structures that help a bacterium attach itself to another bacterium. These are important in the formation of biofilms

  • The research  aims to generate a multi-antibiotic low and high drug concentration genetic map that will point out significant genes and cellular pathways that are responsible for the evolution of resistance at low and high drug respectively.

Drug resistence

 

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in treating a disease or condition.