Municipal corporationsDate: 05 December 2020 Tags: Miscellaneous
The result to the high-octane Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation was announced. The TRS won maximum number of seats.
Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located.
A municipal corporation is a local government in India that administers urban areas with a population of more than one million.
74th Constitutional Amendment Act
The 74th constitutional amendment act mandated the setting up and devolution of powers to Urban local bodies (ULBs) or city governments as the lowest unit of governance in cities and towns.
Power was mandated to be given to the people via the local bodies (referred to as municipalities), namely Municipal Corporations, Councils and Nagar Panchayats, which would have representatives that are elected regularly and have a decisive role in planning, provision and delivery of services.
According to the 74th CAA, urban areas would be governed by one of the three mentioned types of urban local governments namely the Nagar Panchayat, Municipal Council and Municipal Corporation based on the size of the area.
Nagar Panchayats were to administer areas in transition from rural to urban areas, municipal councils to administer small urban areas and municipal corporations for larger urban areas.
Urban local bodies
Municipal corporations are created for the administration of big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru and others.
A Municipal Corporation has three authorities namely, the council (legislative wing of the corporation), the standing committee (to facilitate the working of the council) and the commissioner (chief executive authority of the corporation).
The council consist of councillors directly elected by people and is headed by a Mayor while the Commissioner is appointed by state government and is generally an IAS officer.
The municipalities are established for the administration of towns and smaller cities. They are known by various other names like municipal council, municipal committee, municipal board, borough municipality, city municipality and others.
A notified area committee is created for the administration of a fast developing town due to industrialisation, and a town which does not yet fulfil all the conditions necessary for the constitution of a municipality, but which otherwise is considered important by the state government.
All members, including the Chairman, are nominated by the state government. It is neither a statutory body (created by law) nor an elected body.
Town Area Committee
It is set up by a separate act of state legislature for the administration of a small town.
It may be wholly elected or wholly nominated or partly elected and partly nominated as provided by state government.
It is established for municipal administration for civilian population in the cantonment areas.
It is set up under the provisions of the Cantonment Act, 2006 by central government and works under Defence ministry of central government.
It is partly elected and partly nominated body having the Military officer commanding the station as its ex-officio President. Vice president is elected amongst by the elected members of board.
It is established by large public enterprises to provide civic amenities to its staff and workers, who live in the housing colonies built near the plant.
It is not an elected body and all members, including the town administrator, is appointed by the enterprise itself.
The port trusts are established in the port areas for two purposes: (a) to manage and protect the ports; (b) to provide civic amenities. It is created by an Act of Parliament and it consists of both elected and nominated members.
Special Purpose Agency
They are established as statutory bodies by an act of state legislature or as departments by an executive resolution. They function as an autonomous body and are not subordinate agencies to local municipal bodies.