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Current Affairs

One China policy

Date: 25 May 2022 Tags: Miscellaneous

Issue

The White House has clarified that its One China policy has not changed after US President Joe Biden vowed to interfere if China attacked Taiwan.

 

Background

The US is overhauling its Indo-Pacific policy to counter China both economically as well as militarily.

 

Details

The US officials have committed for peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, while also reiterating commitment under the Taiwan Relations Act to provide Taiwan with the military means to defend itself.

 

One China Policy

  • The One China Policy is the bedrock of US-China relationship. Under the policy, the US snapped relations with Taiwan, and established ties with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1979.

  • The US government recognises People’s Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China. The US will maintain only unofficial ties with Taiwan.

  • The US, by formulating the policy, acknowledges the Chinese position that there is but one China and Taiwan is part of China.

  • The policy is seen as a balancing act by US, under which it will maintain official relations with PRC and unofficial relations with Taiwan.

 

Taiwan Relations Act

  • Under this act, the US would be committed to protect status quo of Taiwan by resisting any move by China to use force against Taiwan.

  • The American Institute in Taiwan (AIT) was set up as a private, nongovernmental organisation to maintain unofficial ties. The AIT is the de facto US Embassy in Taiwan.

 

Two China

  • The Communist government captured power in 1949 to form People’s Republic of China (PRC). The Republic of China moved its capital to Taipei and called itself the official representative of China.

  • In 1971 the PRC entered UN through Resolution 2758. It replaced Republic of China as the official representative of China.

 

The One China principle

One China Policy is different from PRC’s One China principle. The US policy includes peaceful process of cross-Strait dispute resolution.