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Current Affairs

History of Taliban and its ideology

Date: 19 August 2021 Tags: Miscellaneous


Terrorist group Taliban has managed to capture Afghanistan capital Kabul after government forces withdrew without a fight.



  • The militant group first emerged near Kandahar, a southern city in Afghanistan. Taliban comes from the Pashto word ‘Talib’, meaning students.

  • Following the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union, the Taliban began as a resistance force. It fought the civil war for control of the country.

  • Majority of the Taliban consisted of ‘mujahedeen’ fighters, who were trained in Islamic ideology in Pakistani madrasas.

  • The Taliban was used by US to counter Soviets. They were provided arms and ammunition. Strategic intelligence was shared with them.

  • The Taliban gained control of most of the country within two years of emergence. In 1996, they completely established themselves and proclaimed Islamic Caliphate.

  • The group established strict Islamic code, Sharia, for governance. The rest of the mujahedeen retreated to northern Afghanistan.


The fall of Taliban

  • After the 9/11 attacks on US, Taliban gave refuge to Al-Qaeda terrorists, including mastermind Osama Bin Laden.

  • The US launched an offensive against the Taliban and drove them from the cities into the mountains of the south bordering Pakistan. It continued its insurgency for the next 20 years.



  • Strict Sharia code was imposed by Taliban during its 5-year reign. Women were denied permission to work, and had to adhere to strict dress code.

  • Floggings and public execution were common. Western books, films and cultural artifacts were destroyed for being blasphemous.


International recognition

  • Taliban was recognised by only five countries, including Pakistan, as rightful ruler. The other nations including UN recognised a rival group.

  • Majority of countries have already warned of sanctions against the regime. China has however signaled its intention of recognizing the government.