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Current Affairs

Role of dam in reducing global flood exposure

Date: 25 January 2021 Tags: Climate Change

Issue

A new study by researchers exposes the role of dams for mitigating flood risk under climate change.

 

Background

Flood is amongst the costliest natural disasters. Globally, flood risk is projected to increase in the future, driven by climate change and population growth. 

 

Details

  • The role of dams in flood mitigation was found to decrease by approximately 15% the number of people globally exposed to historical once-in-100-year floods, downstream of dams during the 21st century.

  • Currently, about half of major river systems worldwide are regulated by dams and more than 3,700 major dams are planned or under construction.

  • To realistically assess population exposure to present and future floods, current and future dam landscapes must be integrated into existing flood modelling frameworks.

  • The number of people exposed to the historical once-in-100-year flood below dams were 7.2 and 13.4 million on average over 2006-2099 given a low and a medium-high greenhouse gas emission trajectory.

  • To maintain the levels of flood protection that dams have provided, new dam operations will be required to offset the effect of climate change, possibly negatively affecting energy production and water storage.

  • In addition, precise and reliable hydro-meteorological forecasts will be invaluable for enhancing flood protection and avoid excessive outflows.

  • Given the many negative environmental and social impacts of dams, comprehensive assessments that consider both potential benefits and adverse effects are necessary for the sustainable development of water resources.

Role played by dams

  • They help people have water to drink and provide water for industry, water for irrigation, water for fishing and recreation.

  • They use water for hydro-electric power production, water for navigation in rivers and water for other needs.

  • Dams also serve people by reducing or preventing floods.