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Mumbai climate action plan

Date: 16 March 2022 Tags: Climate Change


To tackle the challenges of climate change, authorities have released Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP).



The plan tries to mitigate impact of climate change by adopting inclusive and robust mitigation and adaptation strategies.



  • Short, medium- and long-term climate goals are set by the action plan to work towards zero emission of greenhouse gas or a net-zero target for 2050.

  • Six strategic areas have been identified-- sustainable waste management, urban flooding and water resource management, urban greening and biodiversity, energy and buildings, air quality and sustainable mobility.


Preparation of plan

  • The MCAP was prepared with technical support from the World Resources Institute (WRI), India and the C40 Cities network.

  • The first chapter focuses on the city, its ecological, cultural and economical landscapes. The second part focuses on current climate of the city called Baseline assessment.

  • There is focus on Sectoral Priorities and Plans, including ongoing initiatives in the departments, gaps, short, and long-term action points.


Need for the plan

  • Mumbai city will be facing major challenges such as temperature rise, and extreme rain events which will lead to flooding. 

  • Vulnerability assessment of greenhouse gas and natural green cover has shown that the city is facing a warming trend.

  • The plan has set a vision and strategies to fight the climate challenges with mitigation and adaptation steps.


Greenhouse emissions

  • The city emits 23.42 million tonnes of carbon dioxide. This is equal to 1.8 tonnes of CO2 per person.

  • The city’s waste sector contributes to a total of eight per cent of the total emissions. About 72% is from energy sector and 20% from transportation sector.


Way ahead

The success of the plan will depend on the implementation of plan. There are limitations on the extent of control the BMC has on some emitting sectors.

Mumbai Climate Action Plan

Date: 02 September 2021 Tags: Climate Change


To tackle climate change, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has drafted a Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP).



The Mumbai Climate Action Plan (MCAP) has been made in response to reports that the city is likely to suffer due to climate change.



  • The plan will be focused on six areas of importance that will adapt climate resilience strategies along with mitigation.

  • The six areas of focus are: sustainable waste management, building energy efficiency, urban flooding and water resource management, urban greening and biodiversity, air quality, and sustainable mobility.

  • The plan is currently in drafting stage. The authority has asked for feedback from citizens and experts regarding the climate change.

  • The suggestions and entries will be taken until September 20. The final draft is expected to be ready before the United Nations Climate Change (COP26) conference.


Need for action plan

  • The city is expected to face two major challenges due to climate change. The first is rise in temperatures and secondly flooding due to excessive rains.

  • The city has witnessed its annual temperature rise consistently since 2007. The heavy rains and storms have flooded the city almost yearly.

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has specifically mentioned that cities such as Mumbai will witness rise in sea levels by 0.1 metres to 0.3 metres in coming decades.

  • McKinsey India report also says that flash flood intensity in Mumbai is expected to grow by 25% by 2050. About 3 million people will be affected by the events.


Significance of plan

  • The plan will make use of adaptation and mitigation steps to implement strategies to fight climate change.

  • One of the major components of the plan is to reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly. This was adopted after Mumbai joined C40 Cities group.


Reasons for temperature rise

  • The major reason for rise in temperature is destruction of green cover and concretization. Increase in housing density has also contributed.

  • The carbon emission of the city is also very high due to vehicular and industrial pollution. The majority of electricity consumed is through coal power.