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Current Affairs

Goa liberation day

Date: 21 December 2021 Tags: Historical Places

Issue

Prime Minister Modi had recently visited the state of Goa to participate in the 60th liberation day celebrations held on 19th December.

 

Background

The state liberation day is celebrated to mark the withdrawal of Portuguese from the country’s smallest state in 1961.

 

Details

  • Goa was a colony of Portuguese and was ruled by them for 451 years. It was an important port for trade and military operations.

  • Goa was captured by Portuguese from the Maratha rule in 1641. They were the last colonizers to leave India.

 

Goa independence movement

  • Independence movement in Goa started in 18th and 19th century but gained momentum after the British withdrawal.

  • The movement gained strength after Dr Ram Manohar Lohia participated in the demand for independence..

  • The centre started diplomatic talks for getting back Portuguese colonies, which failed to succeed. The government decided to take military action.

 

Operation Vijay

  • The government of India in 1961 adopted a plan called Operation Vijay to free the Portuguese colonies of Goa, Daman and Diu.

  • All the three sections of the Indian armed forces participated in Operation Vijay. The Indian attack overpowered the Portuguese army.

 

Advance into Goa

  • The army advanced into the state from the North and the East. The Air force bombed Portuguese Airbase in Dabolim.

  • The Navy prevented Portuguese Naval Ships from taking offensive action from Mormugao harbor and secured Anjadip Island near Karnataka coast.

 

Implications

Portuguese Governor General Vassalo De Silva signed the document of surrender on December 19. The state came under Indian control.

 

Post liberation

Goa remained a Union Territory until 1987 when it was accorded statehood. A plebiscite stopped its merger with Maharashtra.

 

Remembering martyrs

A War Memorial at Indian Naval Ship Gomantak was constructed in memory of seven sailors and other personnel who laid down their lives.