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Current Affairs

Dhrupad art

Date: 09 November 2019 Tags: Dance and Music



Drupad maestro and Padma Shri awardee Ramakant Gundecha passed away. He was the younger one among the Gundecha brothers.



The brothers performed Drupad, one of the oldest classical Hindustani musical forms in the world.




  • Dhrupad is the most ancient style of Hindustani classical music that has survived until today in its original form. The Dhrupad tradition is a major tradition of Indian culture.

  • The nature of Dhrupad music is spiritual. Seeking not to entertain, but to induce feelings of peace and contemplation in the listener.

  • The word Dhrupad is derived from DHRUVA the steadfast evening star that moves through our galaxy and PADA meaning poetry.

  • It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of Sam Veda. The roots of Dhrupad are ancient, and it is discussed in the Hindu Sanskrit text Natyashastra.

  • A Dhrupad has at least four stanzas, called Sthayi (or Asthayi), Antara, Sancari and Abhoga.

  • The Sthayi part is a melody that uses the middle octave's first tetrachord and the lower octave notes.

  • The Antara part uses the middle octave's second tetrachord and the higher octave notes.

  • The Samcari part is the development phase, which holistically builds using parts of Sthayi and Antara already played, and it uses melodic material built with all the three octave notes.

  • The Abhoga is the concluding section, that brings the listener back to the familiar starting point of Sthayi, albeit with rhythmic variations, with diminished notes like a gentle goodbye.

  • Sometimes a fifth stanza called Bhoga is included. Though usually related to philosophical or Bhakti (emotional devotion to a god or goddess) themes, some Dhrupads were composed to praise kings.


Other forms of Hindustani music


Khayal means imagination. This is the most prominent style in hindustani depicting romantic style of singing. It largely depends on the imagination and improvisation of the performer. It is also composed of particular raga and tala.

 It ranges from praise of kings description of seasons and pranks of Lord Sri Krishna. 



Thumri originated in the eastern part of Uttar Pradesh. It is influenced by hori, kajri, Dadra. Tumhri is supposed to be romantic and erotic style of singing and is also called “lyric of Indian classical music”. The song composition is mainly on love and devotion.  



Tappa developed around the 18th century. It means jump in Persian, it is developed on folk songs of camel riders.