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Wild polio virus in Mozambique

Date: 23 May 2022 Tags: Miscellaneous

Issue

The first case of wild poliovirus Type 1 since 1992 was detected in Mozambique.

 

Background

This is the second instance of imported case of wild poliovirus in Southern Africa this year. The first one was reported in Malawi.

 

Details

  • Polio is a viral disease that affects the nervous system. It can cripple an individual and also cause mortality.

  • The virus dwells in the feces of infected individual. It can spread easily if water or food gets contaminated with infected feces.

 

Symptoms of polio

  • Fever

  • Tiredness

  • Nausea

  • Headache

  • Sore throat

  • Stiffness in the neck and back

  • Pain in the arms and legs

 

Serious nature of infection

  • In many case, polio infection causes permanent loss of muscle function (paralysis).

  • It can turn fatal if muscles used for breathing gets paralyzed and brain gets infected.

 

Prevention and treatment

  • Polio can be easily treated through oral vaccine. It should be given to children below 5 years of age as risk beyond five years is negligible.

  • Once infected with the virus, the disease has no treatment.

 

Variants of polio virus

  • The polio virus has three variants, numbered 1, 2 and 3. For a country to be declared polio-free, wild transmission of all three kinds has to be stopped.

  • For complete eradication, cases of both wild and vaccine-derived polio infection have to be reduced to zero.

 

Polio in India

  • India was declared polio-free in 2014 after there was no single case in the country for three continuous years from 2011.

  • India was removed from the list of countries with active endemic wild poliovirus transmission by WHO in 2012.

 

Polio virus in wild

Currently, the polio virus is endemic in only two countries of the world—Afghanistan and Pakistan.

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