A Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS), a payload on-board Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter, has detected solar proton events which significantly increase the radiation exposure to humans in space.
The instrument recorded coronal mass ejections (CMEs), a powerful stream of ionised material and magnetic fields, leading to geomagnetic storms and lighting up the polar sky with auroras.
When the sun is active, spectacular eruptions called solar flares occur that sometimes also spew out energetic particles (called solar proton events or SPEs) into interplanetary space.
Most of these are high energy protons that impact space systems and significantly increase radiation exposure to humans in space. They can cause ionisation on large scales in the earth’s middle atmosphere.
Japan will implement a set of economic sanctions against Russia and two pro-Russian separatist regions in eastern Ukraine after Moscow formally recognized the areas and ordered the deployment of troops there.
The government will suspend visa issuance for officials from the two regions and freeze their assets. It will ban exports to and imports from the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Japan has condemned the latest Russian move as a violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine as well as international law.