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Yojana Magazine - August Part 2 2020

Date: 28 August 2020

 

Content – Part II

  • Maharashtra – Diverse & Vibrant
  • Gujarat – Culture – A unifying Force
  • Tamil Nadu - Temple Inscriptions
  • Jammu & Kashmir – Memorial Stones

Maharashtra

Visual Art

  1. Ancient Petroglyphs
  2. Cave art
  3. Warli Painting
  4. Pinguli Chitrakathi
  5. Ganjifa
  6. Bhitti Chitra

Performing arts

Petroglyphs (Rock Carvings)

  • Recently, in Ratnagiri district in Maharasthra archaelogists have discovered 1,000 rock carvings which are estimated to be 1200 years old.
  • The carvings have a huge range of images from human and animal forms to abstract pattern and fertility symbols.

Cave Arts

  • The Elephanta caves, the Ajanta and the Ellora caves are enlisted in the UNESCO World Heritage Site list

 

Cave art

 Cave art

 Cave Arts

 

  • The Buddhist monuments: Caves 1–12
  • The Hindu monuments: Caves 13–29
  • The Kailasa temple: Cave 16
  • The Dashavatara: Cave 15
  • The Jain monuments: Caves 30–34
  • Chotta Kailasha: Cave 30
  • Indra Sabha: Cave 32
  • Jagannatha Sabha: Cave 33

Cave Arts

Other caves

  • The Kanheri  caves,  around  the  outskirts  of  Mumbai  are  considered  to  be  very  important  to understand the development of Buddhism in Western India.
  • The Bhaja, Karla, Bedse, Pandavleni, Lenyadri, Manmodi and Shivneri caves are wellknown for their architecture, sculpture and paintings.

Learning through Pictures

 

Warli Paintings

  • The Warli art is a painting style of the tribals who predominantly inhabit Dahanu, Talaseri, Jawhar, Palghar
  • The art uses very basic representation-a circle, a triangle and a square-to depict nature and daily activities of the tribals.
  • The central motif in these ritual paintings is surrounded by scenes portraying hunting, fishing and farming, festivals and dances, trees and animals.
  • Only white colour is used in Warli paintings. The white pigment is a mixture of rice paste and water with gum as a binder.

 

Pinguli Chitrakathi

  • The Thakkar tribe has been practicing Pinguli Chitrakathi since the 17th
  • This is done using a paper, brush  and  handmade
  • It follows  a  sequence  and  is  based  on  the  stories  of  the Mahabharata and Ramayana.
  • A collection of pictures is used to tell the story, which unfolds in the form of songs supported by the music.

 

Ganjifa

  • Ganjifa are handmade playing cards made by the Chitari community.
  • These cards are made from circular pieces of paper on which intricate designs of Dashavatara (Ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu) are hand-painted. A set of Dashavatara Ganjifa consists of 120 cards.
  • Under the patronage of the Royal family of Sawantwadi, the Chitari community has preserved this dying art.

 

Bhitti Chitra

  • Bhitti Chitra is an art style that depicts religious themes on the walls  of houses or temples.
  • The Matheran or Mahatma communities are traditional Bhitti Chitra
  • The paintings are embossed with gold and silver to enhance the depictions.
  • The Matherans live in Godvard near Pali and are known for their paintings of the Gangaur idols.

 

Performing arts

Nandiwala

  • The nandiwala is a specialist performer who presents animal shows.
  • Combining tricks with some soothsaying he employs gubgubee (a double-sided membranophone), ghadyal-tipru (a mallet used to strike a metal disc) and tiny bells as instruments.
  • Rhythmic playing, controlled verbalisation, loud thumping and scraping constitute the musical input.
  • After the show, the performer asks for alms.

 

Performing arts

Bahuroopi

  • The term literally means one with many disguises as the performer parades in different disguises impersonating pregnant women, young mothers, etc.
  • He is a devotee of cult deities like Bahiroba, Khandoba, Jakhai and Janai, and his songs, full of verse and rhymes, are a humorous invitation to marriage.

Dhangari Ovya

  • This movement-oriented song is associated with goatherds (dhangars) and centred on Biruba, an incarnation of Lord Shiva.
  • The dhangars, colourfully clad, dance around players of a huge dhol executing vigorous movements. Broad forceful rhythms, emphatic stanza endings and powerful voice projections are a part of this performance, which is usually held outdoors.

Performing arts

Vasudev Geet

  • Vasudev, the performer, is an incarnation of Lord Krishna. Ghungaroo (ankle bells) and a hand-held pair of manjiri (cymbals) accompany the flute or the singing.
  • Vasudev sings himself and executes nimble, delicate dance steps and whirling body movements.

 

Performing arts

Waghya-Murali Geet

  • The songs form a sub-variety of gondhal, a known form of ritual theatre.
  • Waghya and murali are respectively the male and female devotees of Khandoba.
  • The murali is the chief dancer and the waghya is the accompanist, participating in the performance known as Jagran (keeping awake).
  • Tuntune (one string rhythm-cum-drone chordophone), ghungaroos and ghol (a small bell) are the only instruments used.

 

Folk Dance

Ritualistic Dance Form

  • Khandoba Jagran
  • Ritualistic dance forms can be seen in the Khandoba Jagran of the waghya-murali.
  • The participants through the dance express their devotion to God Khandoba and Goddess Renukadevi.

Gondhal

  • In Gondhal, the gondhali (male performer) dances uninhibitedly to the beats of the sambal and at the same time sings gondhal songs which are devotional in nature.

Folk Dance

Devotional Dance Form

  • Bharud and  Kirtan  are  spontaneous  devotional  dance    In  bharud,  the  bharudkar (performer) sings the opening line, then preaches delivering a spiritual message, and between and after indulges in dancing.
  • Warkari kirtan or dindi dance is performed during the Pandharpur pilgrimage. The dance is not choreographed but is extempore with an overflow of devotional expressions of the warkari (pilgrims), ardent devotees of Lord Vitthal.
  • Bohada which is also known as Panchami, Akhadi, Chaitee constitutes a dance drama associated with mythological stories. The stories of Ramayana, Mahabharata, Lalit and Dashawatara all form part of the repertoire.

Folk Dance

Social Awareness Dance Form

  • Powadas (ballads) have been popular ever since the time of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
  • Powada has an in-built veer ras (valiant spirit) in it and successfully narrates the tales of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and other brave warriors.
  • It is well-known for the propagation of social doctrines and pronouncing social messages at various levels.

 

Folk Dance

Entertaining Dance Form

  • Lavani is an aesthetical combination of singing, enactment and dance, and is one of the most popular folk-dance forms of Maharashtra.
  • Tamasha is rich in  sringar ras (romanticism). There are two types of tamasha,  dholkit fadacha tamasha and sangeet baricha tamahsa.
  • Lavani is performed in both these forms.

Folk Dance

Assorted Folk Dance Form

  • Naman, Khele and Balya (Jakhadi) dance are prominent folk forms.
  • Naman and Khele are purely dramatic forms which are performed during the Holi season whereas Jakhadi is performed during Ganesh Festival.
  • Chapai dance of Sindhudurg district is dance of shepherd community. It resembles the gaja dance of western Maharashtra. These dances are performed to honour the home-deities of the shepherds Biroba and Jotiba.

Folk Dance

Assorted Folk Dance Form

  • Koli dance  is  the  dance  of the fishing  community (Kolis).  It  is  performed  on  festive  days  and at marriages.
  • Men and women dance together.

 About Gujarati Language

Learning through Pictures

 

Learning through Pictures

 

Tamil Nadu inscriptions

  • Tamil Nadu temples have the maximum number of inscriptions.
  • Most inscriptions deal with local administration of land and water. They are about disputes or allocation  or    They  give  us  a  lot  of  information  on  how  land  was  cultivated,  how  water  was conserved and used.
  • Temple walls also record the resolution of caste disputes.
  • Ex: Bramhadesam in the Tambraparni banks is a magnificent temple. It has on its walls a  short arbitration judgement that enjoined two castes to live peacefully for the well-being of the entire village.

Tirunelveli inscription

  • A small inscription from 898 AD in the Shiva temple in Manur, Tirunelveli is of vital importance.
  • It mentions the  village  land  owners  meeting  on  a night  and  redrafting  the rules  of  election  into  the Judicial cum legislative assembly of the village.

Inscriptions of Uthiramerur

  • The more famous Uthiramerur inscription states the name of the village is "Uttaramerur Chaturvedi Mangalam“.
  • Around 25 inscriptions, spanning reigns of around four Pallava kings, have been found at Uthiramerur. In the later part of the 9th century, the Cholas captured the region who further added many inscriptions here.
  • The temple inscriptions of Uthiramerur are notable for their historical descriptions of the rural self-governance. They indicate that Uthiramerur had two village assemblies: Sabha and Ur
  1. The Sabha an exclusively Brahmin (priestly class) assembly, while the Ur was made up of people belonging to all the classes.

Inscriptions of Uthiramerur

 

 

Learning through pictures

 

Yojana Magazine - August Part 1 2020

Date: 23 August 2020

 

Contents – Part I

  • Philosophical Nature of Indian Music
  • Unique identity of North East Region

Content – Part II

  • Maharashtra – Diverse & Vibrant
  • Gujarat – Culture – A unifying Force
  • Tamil Nadu - Temple Inscriptions
  • Jammu & Kashmir – Memorial Stones

 

Indian Music = Spirituality

  • The Indian  classical  music,  be  it  Hindustani  or  Carnatic,  has  essentially  got  a  spiritual  component inherent in it.
  • But Why?

 

Why Spirituality in Music?

  • Temples provided a platform where these arts flourished.

  • Bhakti movement focussed on selfless devotion with many saying music as connecting link.
  • Indian classical  music  are  formulated  and  structured  in  such  a  way that  it  becomes  an  inward  journey for find god within.

 Whats the proof of that Spirituality?

  • Nadopasana
  • Nadopasana' means 'worship ( upasana ) through music.
  • Guru-Shishya Parampara
  • Gharana tradition

 

Lets talk about different forms

Lets talk about different forms

Music & Painting connection

  • A typical example of the amalgamation of Indian classical music with visual art and poetry was the evolution of Ragamala (‘garlands of musical modes’) painting series of medieval India.
  • It is a form of Indian miniature painting that depicted various Indian musical modes or Ragas.

 Music & Painting

Learning through Pictures

 The Extras  

  • What’s SPIC MACAY?
  • SPIC MACAY (Society for the Promotion of Indian Classical Music And Culture Amongst Youth) is a non-political, nationwide, voluntary movementfounded in 1977.
  • The movement was founded by Dr Kiran Seth who was awarded the Padma Shri for his contribution to the arts in 2009.
  • It is a participatory student movement registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • Its intention is to enrich the quality of formal education by increasing awareness about different aspects of Indian heritage and inspiring the young mind to imbibe the values embedded in it.
  • It is supported nationally by the Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, and the Ministry of Human Resource Development.
  • In 2011, it was awarded the Rajiv Gandhi Sadbhavana awardin recognition of its contribution to youth development.

The Extras

  • The Hindustani Music
  • Both Hindustani & Carnatic music have roots in Bharata’s Natyasastra but,they diverged in the 14th
  • The Hindustani branch of music focuses more on the musical structure and the possibilities of improvisation in it.
  • The Hindustani branch adopted a scale of Shudha Swara Saptaka.
  • The Hindustani music has elements of ancient Hindu tradition, Vedic philosophy and Persian traditionas well.
  • Since ancient times, it has been passed from one to another through the Guru-Shishya Parampara.

 

The Extras - Dhrupad

 

The Extras -Khayal

 

The Extras - Thumri

 

The Extras - Tappa

  • In this style the rhythm plays a very important role as the compositions are based on fast, subtle and knotty constructions. There is Great use of very quick turn of phrases.
  • Tappa developed in the late 18thCentury from the folk songs of camel riders of North-West India.

 

The Extras

 

The Extras

  • Carnatic Music
  • Carnatic music owes its name to the Sanskrit term Karnataka Sangitamwhich denotes “traditional” or “codified” music.
  • It is composed of a system of Ragam(Raga) and Thalam (Tala), it has a rich history and tradition.
  • Both Hindustani & Carnatic music have roots in Bharata’s Natyasastra but, they diverged in the 14th century.
  • Both the terms emerged for the first time in Haripala’s “Sangeeta Sudhakara”,written in the 14th century A.D.
  • Purandardasis considered to be the father of Carnatic music (Carnatic Sangeeta Pitamaha).

 

The Extras

  • Carnatic Music
  • Carnatic music, from South India is rhythmically intensive and more structured than Hindustani music.
  • For instance, Carnatic has logical classification of ragas into melakartas.
  • Carnatic raga elaborations are generally much faster in tempo and shorter than their equivalents in Hindustani music.

 

The Extras

 

The Parameters

  • Languages
  • Religion & Faiths
  • Festivals
  • Fabrics

The Language

 

The Language - Extras

 

The Language - Extras

 

The Faith

The Faith - Extras

 

The Festivals

  • Assam
  • Bihu, the  most  popular    It  has  its  roots  in  agrarian  practices
  • Bhogali Bihu 
  • Rongali Bihu
  • Kongali Bihu
  • The Bodos call their New Year festival Baisagu, the Dimasas call it Busu, the  Karbis  call it Rongker, the Mishings call it Ali-aye-Lrigang, and the Rabhas call it Baikho.

The Festivals

  • Meghalaya
  • The Garos celebrate Wangala
  • The Khasis celebrate Shad Suk Mynsiem
  • The Jaintias celebrate Behdeinkham
  • Mizoram
  • All three festivals— Chapchar Kut, Mim Kut and Pawl Kuft-are related to agriculture, during which the Mizos perform Cheraw, the amazing bamboo dance.

 

The Festivals

  • Arunachal Pradesh 
  • The Adi  community  celebrates  Solung
  • The Apatanis  celebrate  Dree
  • The Niyishis celebrate Nokyum
  • The Galos celebrate Mopin
  • The Monpas celebrate Losar
  • All are related to agriculture.
  • Nagaland
  • Tribe-wise festivals  are —  Sekrenyi  (Angami),  Aoling  Monyu  (Konyak),  Moatsu  (Ao), Tuluni (Sema), ZJokhu Emong (Lotha) and Amongmong (Sangtam).

 

The Festivals

  • Manipur
  • Cheiraoba is the Manipuri New Year festival.
  • Lai Haraoba  is celebrated to appease the sylvan deity called Umanglai.
  • Yaoshang is the wonderful week-long Holi festival.
  • Rath Yatra, also called Kang Chingba, is a nine-day chariot festival dedicated to Lord Jagannath.

 

The Extras

  • Rangkholi – Meghalaya
  • Rangkholi or ‘Tiger Festival’ is a religious festival celebrated by the people of Nongtalang village in the War-Jaintia region of Meghalaya.
  • As per tradition, whenever any person from the village catches a tiger or its feline like, rituals have to be performed. The festival is mainly held in the month of January to March.

The Extras

  • Chokri Naga Folk Songs – Nagaland
  • The Chokri community is a sub community under the tribe Chakesang (Naga).
  • They cherish the folk song culture as their proud heritage.

The Extras - Sowa Rigpa

 

The Fabric

  • Assam has the highest number of handlooms in the country.
  • Assam is also home to the unique muga or golden silk—a variety of wild silk geographically tagged to Assam.
  • In Assam, people commonly weave mekhela-chador, while the ceremonial set also includes a riha.
  • Bodo tribal women of Assam weave the dokhona and jwmgra that constitute a woman’s traditional dress, while the aronai is a beautiful scarf worn by men.
  • Most common handloom products of the Mishing tribes are sumpa and galuk, a two-piece dress for women, while Rabha women weave khanbung and riphan.

The Fabric

  • In Manipur
  • Meiteis produce the phanek
  • Tangkhuls make kasan
  • In Arunachal Pradesh
  • Apatani women weave bilanabi, chinyu-abi and jig-jiro
  • Singpho women sew pukang
  • Nyishi women weave par-ij
  • Khamti women weave siu-pashao

The Fabric

  • Naga tribes
  • The Ao shawl is called tsungkotepsu
  • The Angami shawl is called loramhousho.
  • Mizoram
  • Varieties of the puan—a drape and uncut rectangular cotton cloth with tualhlohpuan and punchei