1. OVERVIEW – TEXTILE INDUSTRY
2. OVERVIEW – HANDICRAFTS
3. KHADI INDUSTRY
4. TEXTILES & HANDICRAFTS IN NE INDIA
Overview – Textile Industry
- The history of textiles in India dates back to the use of mordant dyes and printing blocks around 3000 BC.
- The diversity of fibres found in India, intricate weaving on its state-of-art manual looms and its organic dyes attracted buyers from all over the world for centuries.
- British colonization and its industrial policies destroyed the innovative eco-system and left it technologically impoverished.
- Independent India saw the building up of textile capabilities, diversification of its product base, and its emergence, once again, as an important global player.
MAJOR SECTORS IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY
- Textile industry is divided into following sectors:
2. Wool, silk and man-made fibre
3. Jute & other vegetable fibre
4. Textile products including wearing apparel
5. Technical Textiles
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
- Contribution of textile industry:
1. Size = $150 billion
2. 2% to GDP | 14% to industrial production
3. Exports = $40 billion | 13% of export earnings
4. Employs about 45 million people | 18% of manufacturing
- India is 2nd largest manufacturer & exporter in World, after China
- Scale: except spinning, all other sectors suffer from problem of scale
- Skills: paucity of technical manpower
- Raw material: Poor quality and low productivity of cotton
- Innovation/Tech: Lack of R&D
1 E.g. synthetic textiles are 50% of global textile market but Indian synthetics are not well developed. Same with technical textiles.
1. labor reforms (hindering movement towards higher scale of operations)
2. power availability and its quality
3. customs clearance and shipment operations from ports
4. credit for large scale investments needed for up-gradation of technology
- International Competition: SE Asian countries + China
STEPS TAKEN BY GOVT.
- Offers Rebate of State Levies to textiles exporters
1. to offset indirect taxes levied by states such as stamp duty, petroleum tax, electricity duty and mandi tax that were embedded in exports
- Technology Up-gradation Fund Scheme (TUFS) (1999)
- Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP)
- Integrated Skill Development Scheme
- PM Paridhan Rojgar Protsahan Yojana – incentive to employers by EPF contribution
- Mahatma Bunker Bima Yojana – insurance cover to handloom weavers in natural death
- Bunkar Mitra – Helpline for handholding of Handloom weavers
- Hathkargha Samvardhan Sahayata – govt. bears 90% of the cost of new handlooms
- Deendayal Hastkala Sankul – trade facilitation centre for handicrafts located in Varanasi
- Sustainable and Accelerated Adoption of efficient Textile technologies to Help small Industries (SAATHI) – provide energy efficient power looms
- POWERTEX – aims to boost infrastructure and modernization of the powerloom sector
- Scheme for Capacity Building in Textiles Sector (SCBTS)
- North East Region Textile Promotion scheme
- Integrated Scheme for Development of Silk Industry
- Moirang Phee is a famous textile of which State?
Overview – Handicrafts
- A simple and workable definition of handicrafts by Development Commissioner (Handicrafts):
1. manual labour with minimal or no input from machines;
2. a substantial level of skill or expertise;
3. a significant element of tradition;
4. history of survival in significant scale.
- In India we have > 500 crafts, of which:
1. Endangered crafts = 35
2. GI Tagged = 92
3. Exported > 200
MAJOR HANDICRAFT GROUPS (AS PER NIC)
- Khadi (cloth that is hand-woven from hand-spun yarn)
- Cotton handlooms and silk handlooms
- Hand processing of cotton textile and silk textile
- ‘Zari’ (silver and gold thread work) and embroidery
- Leather manufacture
- Plating/polishing/engraving of metals
- Jewellery and related articles
- Making of musical instruments
- Miscellaneous products of wood, bamboo, cane and grass
SOCIAL IMPORTANCE OF HANDICRAFTS
- High Employment Intensive sector
- Diversifies income base of farmer-artisan
- High employability of woman
- Socially inclusive – artisans across caste groups
- Decentralized – mostly located in rural areas
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF HANDICRAFTS
- Handicraft Artisans ~ 70 Lakh (11th FYP) (56% women)
- Changing Consumption Poses a Challenge
- Increasing Competition Abroad
- Raw Material Scarcity
- Corruption and Administrative Inefficiency
- Environmental and Social Concerns
- Problems Specific to Crafts Producers
1. Limited Information and Capability
2. Lack of finance
3. Lack of social status
- Problems Specific to Traders and Exporters
2. Transactions costs
3. Design protection
4. Government policy
STEPS TAKEN BY GOVT. : MARKETING
- Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts organizes:
1. product specific shows
2. Indian Handicrafts & Gifts Fairs (annually)
- Market Development Assistance
- Market Access Initiative
- Indian Handloom Bazaar – e-portal
- Hastkala Sahyog Shivirs (400 in 200 districts in 2017)
- Geographical Indicator Tags e.g. Kangra Paintings, Varanasi brocades & saris, Bastar wooden craft, etc.
1. Raghurajpur village, famous for Pattachitra, is in which state?
- West Bengal
- KhÄdÄ« or Khaddar is a term for hand spun and hand-woven cloth from India, Bangladesh and Pakistan primarily made out of cotton.
1. Khadi = Hand spun + Hand woven
2. Handloom = Machine spun + Hand woven
- Raw materials may also include silk, or wool, which are all spun into yarn on a spinning wheel called a charkha.
- It is a versatile fabric, cool in summer and warm in winter. In order to improve the look, khÄdÄ«/khaddar is sometimes starched to give it a stiffer feel.
KHADI MOVEMENT IN INDIA
- In 1918 Mahatma Gandhi started his movement for Khadi as relief programme for the poor masses living in India's villages.
- It was to be an agent of change for providing livelihood, self-sufficiency and at a moral plane inculcate virtues like patience.
- Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC), established under KVIC Act, 1956, is engaged in promoting and developing khadi and village industries.
- Main objectives of KVIC include:-
1. social objective of providing employment in rural areas;
2. economic objective of producing saleable articles; (2017 => 50k Cr)
3. wider objective of creating self-reliance and strong community spirit.
- KVI today represent an exquisite, heritage product, which is ‘ethnic’ as well as ethical.
ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE : EMPLOYMENT
1. People should buy khadi not as a “national duty” or “act of charity” but because it is fashionable, admired the world over, and intrinsically of high value. Khadi be promoted as fashion product and eco-friendly.
- Shops to be opened in all international airports in India and the possibility of marketing through e-commerce must be explored.
1. Huge charkhas have been set up at IGI Airport and Connaught Place
- Need for a khadi mark on the lines of handloom/ silk mark.
- New products / designs will be developed with the help of NID and NIFT.
1. Under Product development, design intervention and packaging (PRODIP), incentives for development of new products, designs and better packaging have been introduced.
- Khadi mitra is on the cards – where housewives could sell Khadi with a very nominal capital investment.
1. Screw pine craft is famously practiced in which state?
- Tamil Nadu
- Himachal Pradesh
- Jammu & Kashmir
- NE India has a lot of heterogeneity in terms of culture.
- Textiles and dresses are dominant cultural aspects.
- Development of textiles & handicrafts is an imp tool for regional development of NE India.
- Practiced by most of the tribal groups in NE India
1. Some exceptions => Nokteys of Tirap in Arunachal and Khasis of Meghalaya
- Meghalaya is known for establishing tradition of high quality weaving. Arunachal is famous for their beautiful color combinations.
- Exceptional are: Sherdukpen shawls, Apatani jackets and scarves, Mishmi shawls, Naga shawls, etc.
- Assam is 3rd largest producer of silk in India and is home to various types of silk. Muga is coveted.
- Manipur produces ~100% of Oak tasar silk and is highest producer of mulberry silk in NE India.
- Tripura focuses on production of only Mulberry silk with end to end solutions.
BAMBOO & CANE CRAFT
- Weather conditions are conducive for bamboo.
- Mizos take great pride in their cane and bamboo work.
- Most of Naga tribes are adept at wood & bamboo.
- Assamese life revolves around cane & bamboo goods.
1. Jappi, a traditional sun shade, remains the most significant bamboo article.
- Carpets Most ancient form of carpet weaving is found in Sikkim
1. Arunachal is also famous for it’s carpets
1. Sikkim excels in wood carving while it is a significant hobby of the Wanchos of Tirap in Arunachal
2. Rengma tribe is considered to be the best Naga black smith for e.g. beautifully decorated spears