It can be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Graphene has many uncommon properties. It is the strongest material ever tested,
conducts heat and electricity efficiently, and is nearly transparent. Graphene shows a large and nonlinear diamagnetism, greater than that of graphite, and can be levitated by neodymium magnets.
Scientists theorized about graphene for years. It had been produced unintentionally in small quantities for centuries through the use of pencils and other similar graphite applications.
It was observed originally in electron microscopes in 1962, but it was studied only while supported on metal surfaces. The material was later rediscovered, isolated, and characterized in 2004 by Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov at the University of Manchester.
Research was informed by existing theoretical descriptions of its composition, structure, and properties.
This work resulted in the two winning the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 "for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene
Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are epidemic in India.
The Registrar General of India reported that CHD led to 17% of total deaths and 26% of adult deaths in 2001-2003, which increased to 23% of total and 32% of adult deaths in 2010- 2013.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and Global Burden of Disease Study also have highlighted increasing trends in years of life lost(YLLs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from CHD in India.
In India, studies have reported increasing CHD prevalence over the last 60 years, from 1% to 9%-10% in urban populations and <1% to 4%-6% in rural populations.
Using more stringent criteria (clinical ± Q waves), the prevalence varies from 1%-2% in rural populations and 2%-4% in urban populations. This may be a more realistic prevalence of CHD in India.
Case-control studies have reported that important risk factors for CHD in India are dyslipidemias, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, abdominal obesity, psychosocialstress, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. Suitable preventive strategies are required to combat this epidemic.