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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 08 July 2021

India-Turkey | Ind Exp

  • A new round of geopolitical jousting begins on India’s north-western frontiers
  • Critical players in post-America Afghanistan
  • FOCUS: Turkey’s regional ambitions and their implications for India.

  • Ankara is in negotiations with the US on taking charge of the Kabul airport which is critical for international presence in Afghanistan that is coming under the Taliban’s control.
  • Turkey has been running Kabul airport security for a while, but doing so after the US pullout will be quite demanding.
  • Ankara and Kabul have recently celebrated the centennial of the establishment of diplomatic relations.
  • Turkey joined the NATO military mission in Afghanistan after the ouster of the Taliban at the end of 2001
  • Turkey avoided any combat role and differentiated itself from the Western powers
  • Ankara has contributed to the training of the Afghan military and police forces.
  • It has also undertaken much independent humanitarian and developmental work.
  • Turkey’s good relations with both Afghanistan and Pakistan - mediator
  • Turkey’s “Heart of Asia” conference or the Istanbul Process
  • Turkey’s growing role in Afghanistan opens a more difficult phase in relations between Delhi and Ankara.
  • India’s opposition to alliances and Turkey’s alignments reflected divergent international orientations of Delhi and Ankara after the Second World War.
  • Turkey’s deepening bilateral military-security cooperation with Pakistan made it even harder for Delhi to take a positive view of Ankara.
  • Turkey and Pakistan were part of the Central Treaty Organisation that was set up in 1955 by the British.
  • Although CENTO eventually wound up in 1979, Turkey and Pakistan remained close partners in a number of regional organisations and international forums like the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
  • The shared secular values between Delhi and Ankara in the pre-Erdogan era were not enough to overcome the strategic differences between the two in the Cold War.
  • There were moments — during the tenures of Prime Ministers Rajiv Gandhi and Atal Bihari Vajpayee, when India and Turkey seemed poised for a more productive relationship.
  • But those have been rather few and far between.
  • Meanwhile, Turkey’s Islamist internationalism under Recep Tayyip Erdogan has inevitably led to its deeper alliance with Pakistan, greater meddling in South Asia, and a sharper contraction with India.
  • The Pakistani prism through which Delhi has long seen Ankara, however, has prevented it from fully appreciating the growing strategic salience of Turkey.
  • Erdogan’s active claim for leadership of the Islamic world has seen a more intensive Turkish political, religious, and cultural outreach to the Subcontinent’s 600 million Muslims.
  • Turkey has become the most active international supporter of Pakistan on the Kashmir question.
  • In Pakistan, Prime Minister Imran Khan has rallied behind Erdogan’s ambition to seize the leadership of the Islamic world from Saudi Arabia.
  • Pakistan’s Army Chief, General Qamar Javed Bajwa had to step in to limit the damage with Saudi Arabia, which has long been Pakistan’s major economic benefactor.
  • Erdogan was quick to condemn the Bangladesh government’s hanging of a senior Jamat e Islami leader in 2016.
  • Erdogan also offered strong political support for Dhaka on the Rohingya refugee crisis.
  • As Bangladesh emerges as an attractive economy, Ankara is now stepping up its commercial cooperation with Dhaka.
  • Turkey, which hosted the Caliphate in the Ottoman era, had natural spiritual resonance among the South Asian Muslims.
  • The abolition of the Caliphate in 1924, Turkey’s Westernisation under Ataturk reduced its religious significance.
  • Erdogan’s Islamist politics are about regaining that salience.
  • Turkey has been a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation since the early 1950s; but Ankara has no hesitation today in breaking from NATO policies when it suits its interests.
  • Turkey has learnt to take advantage of the alliance without sacrificing its “strategic autonomy”.
  • If the fear of the Soviet Union led Turkey to NATO, a weaker Russia has opened space for Erdogan to collaborate as well as compete with Moscow.
  • Ankara buys S-400 missiles from Russia in defiance of NATO, while challenging Moscow’s primacy in the Caucasus.
  • Turkey was the first Muslim-majority nation that established full diplomatic relations with Israel.
  • Erdogan now actively mobilises the Arab and Islamic world against Israel without breaking relations with Tel Aviv.
  • India, which has been at the receiving end of Erdogan’s internationalism, has multiple options in pushing back.
  • The recent naval exercise between India and Greece in the Mediterranean offers a small hint of India’s possibilities in Turkey’s neighbourhood.

  • Many Arab leaders reject Erdogan’s policies that remind them of Ottoman imperialism.
  • They resent Erdogan’s support of groups like the Muslim Brotherhood that seek to overthrow moderate governments in the Middle East.
  • There is much that India can do to up its game in the Arab world.
  • Delhi is aware of Erdogan’s hypocrisy on minority rights.
  • While pitching for self-determination in Kashmir, Erdogan actively tramples on the rights of its Kurdish minority at home and confronts them across Turkey’s border in Syria and Iraq.
  • For Delhi, there are larger lessons from Erdogan’s regional ambitions.
  • New fluidity in geopolitics in India’s extended neighbourhood to the west
  • Agency for regional powers is growing as the influence of great power weakens
  • Religious ideology, like the more secular ones, is a cover for the pursuit of power
  • Delhi needs to vigorously challenge Turkey’s positions where it must, seize the opportunities opened by regional resentments against Erdogan’s adventurism, and at the same time prepare for a more intensive bilateral engagement with Ankara.

NEWS

  • Heavyweights shown the door as PM Modi rejigs Cabinet

  • Judge recuses from hearing Mamata’s election petition
  • Calcutta High Court Justice Kaushik Chanda on Wednesday imposed a cost of ₹5 lakh on Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee while recusing himself from hearing an election petition filed by her.
  • The cost has been imposed for “vilification adopted to seek recusal”.
  • Banerjee urged the judge to recuse himself from hearing the petition, alleging that he had links with the Bharatiya Janata Party.
  • T.N.’s health infrastructure comes in for praise from SC
  • Petrol price crosses ₹100/litre mark in Delhi
  • ISRO spy case: bail plea of former DGP adjourned
  • Recoveries dip as Maharashtra reports more than 9,500 fresh COVID-19 cases
  • Jaishankar calls on Iranian President-elect
  • New platform maps Pegasus spread
  • An online database on spyware Pegasus’ use was recently launched by Forensic Architecture, Amnesty International and Citizen Lab to document attacks against human rights defenders.
  • EU forecasts higher growth in Eurozone
  • IMF chief warns of U.S. inflation risk

The monk | Pioneer

  • The autonomous region of Tibet is a sensitive spot for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).
  • President Xi Jinping’s Belt and Road Initiative is the spearhead project of his inroads into Eurasia through this region, and neighbouring Xinjiang.
  • Tibet also reminds China of the bitter fact that the Dalai Lama lives in exile in India even as Tibetans continue their struggle for independence.

  • India touched that sensitive spot the other day when Prime Minister Narendra Modi had a telephonic conversation with the Dalai Lama on the latter’s 86th birthday.
  • It was Modi’s first conversation with the Tibetan spiritual leader after 2014, at least one that is acknowledged publicly.
  • Two days earlier, Modi greeted President Joe Biden on the Independence Day of the United States.
  • However, Modi wishing the Dalai Lama “a long and healthy life” carries its own meaning in the context of China’s repeated threats that the Tibetan leader’s successor cannot be anointed without its approval.
  • India has so far not waded into the succession affair and, for the first time, may have let it be known that it has the Tibetan people’s interests in sight on the subject.
  • Beijing is yet to officially respond to the conversation, but its irritation can be gauged from its past responses.
  • In 2011, for instance, scheduled talks between China and India were deferred possibly over New Delhi’s refusal to cancel an international religious conference the Dalai Lama was scheduled to address.
  • In 2020, President Donald Trump confronted China on this issue by bringing in the Tibetan Policy and Support Act that stated that only the Dalai Lama can have control over the process of finding his reincarnation.
  • China retaliated by bringing out a white paper — “Tibet Since 1951: Liberation, Development and Prosperity” — in which it referred to the “Imperially Approved Ordinance for Better Governance of Tibet” promulgated in 1793 that stipulated that the “reincarnation of the Dalai Lama and other grand Living Buddhas had to follow the procedure of ‘drawing lots from the golden urn’, and the selected candidate would be subject to approval by the Central Government of China”.
  • The questions about reincarnation turn controversial with easing passing birthday even as India and the United States share similar views on the Tibetan leader’s right to choose his successor.
  • The Prime Minister’s tweet is in sync with India’s place in Tibetan affairs and its current relations with China.

Yes, minister | Ind Exp

  • No student should be punished for exercising their right to free speech within the university space.
  • In an argumentative democracy, that sentence — along with much of Delhi Deputy Chief Minister and Education Minister Manish Sisodia’s letter to the Principal Secretary, Education — should be a truism, not a statement to be lauded.
  • Yet, the fact that Minister Sisodia publicly stood up for the right of a student of Delhi’s Ambedkar University (AUD) to criticise university policies and allegedly, Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal, is welcome.
  • The notion that a “university should be a safe space for students to freely voice their opinion, debate and develop their points of view” has been increasingly under threat from various governments, including and especially at the Centre.
  • And the fact that one of the top leaders of a state government has stood up for the right to free speech and dissent on campus could help guide the public conversation, both within and outside universities, back to fundamental constitutional principles and guarantees.
  • A final semester MA student at AUD was fined Rs 5,000 for her remarks during the online convocation ceremony attended by Kejriwal.
  • The high-handed manner in which this punishment was announced is of a piece with a dismal pattern that has been taking shape in universities across the country since at least 2016.
  • That eventful year saw the suicide of Rohith Vemula at Hyderabad Central University, the labelling of students at JNU as “anti-national” for holding a political programme as well as charges of sedition being filed against some of them.
  • During the anti-CAA protests, subsequently, the police stormed the Jamia Millia Islamia and AMU campuses and many scholars and students have been arrested under the provisions of the draconian UAPA.
  • In all this, students and their right to disagree and dissent have been pitted against muscular and homogenising ideas of nationalism.
  • Sisodia’s defence of dissent acknowledges that the university is a space where the shibboleths of nationalism, and the claims of the powerful, are up for constant challenge and review.
  • To maintain the campus as a site for creativity and innovation, students and scholars must be allowed to question accepted pieties and wisdom.

Q.) Name the initiative launched by the Union Education Ministry that sets literacy goals for class3 students, such as being able to read and write numbers up to 9,999.

  1. Swayam Bharat Mission
  2. NIPUN Bharat Mission
  3. Ishan Vikas
  4. Nishank Bharat Mission

Q.)What is the Pakistan’s highest civilian honour (in the field of arts, literature) called?

  1. Sitara-e-Pakistan
  2. Nishan-e-Imtiaz
  3. Nishan-e-Sujaat
  4. Hilal-e-Imitaz