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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 03 December 2020

 

Behind China’s wolf warrior diplomacy

  • In the last few years - global politics and relations - ‘NATIONALISM’ governing theme
  • Chinese President Xi Jinping - abrasive brand of nationalism
  • ‘WOLF WARRIOR DIPLOMACY’ - it has been a work-in-progress for much longer and involves a state-sponsored and systemic indoctrination campaign
  • The Chinese Communist Party initially embraced nationalism as a co-option strategy in the aftermath of the Tiananmen Square massacre.
  • While this process marked the Chinese Communist Party’s transition from a revolutionary to a national party, it forever transformed the Chinese nation-state into a Party-state.
  • It is this ‘Party-state’ brand of nationalism that the international community is being confronted with.
  • ‘Patriotic Education Campaign’ in the 1990s
  • ‘Century of humiliation’ was invented and etched in public memory as a historical fact.
  • At the core of this campaign was the grand design to project the Chinese Communist Party as the harbinger and sole guarantor of the peace, prosperity and sovereignty of the eternally ‘victimised’ Chinese nation.
  • As such, the very legitimacy of the Chinese Communist Party within Chinese politics is based upon an imaginary enemy or a threat perception.
  • At the domestic level, this nationalist fervour has been secured through patriotic indoctrination campaigns, promotion of a leadership personality cult, and the now legendary anti-corruption drive.
  • Corruption has for long been recognised by the Chinese Communist Party as the single biggest challenge to its existence
  • ‘FANDUI FUBAI’ - the one who is opposed to corruption among the Chinese public.
  • In 2018, the Party launched a “patriotic striving spirit” campaign to ‘enhance patriotism’ among Chinese intellectuals.
  • Interestingly, even the Ministry of Foreign Affairs recently inaugurated a ‘Xi Jinping Thought’ study centre to guide the “theoretical construction” of China’s foreign policy.

Castes count

  • Tamil Nadu government’s decision to establish a commission to collect caste-wise data
  • Pattali Makkal Katchi demanding 20% exclusive reservation in education and government jobs for the Vanniyar community, its main electoral base.
  • The Supreme Court has been asking States to produce quantifiable data to justify their levels of reservation, and it would help Tamil Nadu to retain its 69% total reservation.
  • Some castes that have either electoral or numerical importance across India have been restive about the manner in which affirmative action programmes based on classes and communities have been implemented so far.
  • Be it the Gujjars, or Jats or the Patidars, or the Vanniyars, some sections have been linking their prospects of advancement to exclusive reservation.
  • In Tamil Nadu, sections of the Vanniyars, whose violent 1987-88 agitation resulted in the creation of a ‘most backward classes’ category entitled to 20% reservation, are apparently dissatisfied about being clubbed with over a hundred other castes.
  • The proposed commission may not conduct an elaborate enumeration on the lines of the Centre’s decennial census.
  • Its mandate is to examine the methodology for collecting caste-wise particulars, conduct a survey based on that and submit a report.
  • It will be quite a challenge to arrive at a sound assessment of the social and educational backwardness of each caste.
  • Govt should seek to rationalise and deepen its social justice policy with a true assessment of the backwardness of various castes.
  • After all, progress towards a casteless and equal society ought to remain the state’s ultimate goal.

Hard bargains and the art of policymaking

  • The ongoing farmers’ agitation epitomises the need to have detailed discussions and consultations while making law and policy.
  • The process of building consensus and addressing concerns may be time-consuming, but it leads to greater acceptance of policy objectives.
  • While such work has to be done at multiple levels, Parliament is perhaps the most important forum for this.
  • Parliament has a well-established process to get inputs of experts and stakeholders, and to build cross-party consensus while enacting a law.
  • This is usually done through its committees.
  • The government can also use other consultative mechanisms, such as expert committees and consultative groups, to get feedback and tailor policy.
  • Parliamentary committees perform a very important role in the lawmaking process.
  • They allow MPs to engage with experts and understand the nuances of a Bill, enable discussion across party lines without the pressure of posturing for the public, and on several occasions, these committees have helped negotiate a path through conflicting interests.
  • This process highlights the importance of building a broad consensus before making a major policy or legislative change.
  • The Standing Committee and Select Committee provided fora for parliamentarians to engage with experts and stakeholders, which helped them recommend changes that would lead to a broadly acceptable Bill.
  • Compare this with the process followed for the new farm laws.
  • The Bills were initially enacted through ordinances.
  • That is, the government enacted these laws through executive decision when Parliament was not in session.
  • We need to learn an important lesson from this episode.
  • Stable policy-making needs a broad agreement on the benefits of the policy.
  • Such consensus has to be built through conversations with stakeholders.

A looming health crisis

  • A silent pandemic has been brewing in the background for decades.
  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is growing at an alarming rate.
  • Globally, about 35% of common human infections have become resistant to available medicines.
  • About 700,000 people die every year because available antimicrobial drugs — antibiotics, antivirals, antiparasitic and antifungals — have become less effective at combating pathogens.
  • In India, the largest consumer of antibiotics in the world, this is a serious problem.
  • According to a study published in The Lancet, an estimated 58,000 new-born children die annually from sepsis in India alone because antibiotics can no longer treat certain bacterial infections.
  • The misuse and overuse of antimicrobials for humans, livestock and agriculture is probably the biggest reason for this, but other factors also contribute.
  • Research points to the role of environment and pollution in AMR.
  • Once consumed, up to 80% of antibiotic drugs are excreted un-metabolised, along with resistant bacteria.
  • Their release in effluents from households and health and pharmaceutical facilities, and agricultural run-off, is propagating resistant microorganisms.
  • Wastewater treatment facilities are unable to remove all antibiotics and resistant bacteria.
  • In India, there is capacity to treat only about 37% of the sewage generated annually.
  • The rest is discharged into natural water bodies without treatment.
  • An analysis of single wastewater discharge from a treatment facility in India catering to drug manufacturers found concentrations of antibiotics high enough to treat over 40,000 people daily.
  • Wildlife that comes into contact with discharge containing antimicrobials can also become colonised with drug-resistant organisms.
  • The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) identified antimicrobial resistance as one of six emerging issues of environmental concern in its 2017 Frontiers Report.
  • UN agencies are working together to develop the One Health AMR Global Action Plan (GAP) that addresses the issue in human, animal, and plant health and food and environment sectors.
  • Early in 2020, the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) issued draft standards which set limits for residues of 121 antibiotics in treated effluents from drug production units.
  • These standards await finalisation.
  • And in July this year, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and MoEF&CC constituted the inter-ministerial Steering Committee on Environment and Health, with representation from WHO and UNEP.

NEWS

  • Fourth round of talks between Central govt and farmers to be held in New Delhi today
  • Country's COVID recovery rate reaches 94.11 pct
  • Britain becomes first country in world to approve coronavirus vaccine
  • US Congress panel blames China for planning Galwan Valley clash
  • All arrangements in place for Cyclonic Storm ‘Burevi’; likely to hit Tamil Nadu coast tonight
  • Rajnath Singh urges countrymen to voluntarily contribute to Armed Forces Flag Day Fund
  • Task force set up to prepare roadmap for imparting technical education in mother tongue
  • HM Amit Shah emphasises there should be zero tolerance against terrorism
  • Piyush Goyal calls for cooperation from states to build stronger nation & achieve transformational goals
  • Dr S Jaishankar discusses bilateral cooperation issues with his Omani counterpart
  • China appreciates India’s initiatives in hosting SCO Heads of Govt. meet,Says ready to work with India to elevate the SCO
  • The 7th India-Suriname Joint Commission Meeting held virtually
  • India continues to make impressive gains in reduction of malaria burden: WHO
  • Myanmar overtakes China in total number of COVID 19 cases