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The Hindu Editorial Analysis | PDF Download

Date: 30 May 2019


  • The thing which is common between these 3

1 mudiyettu

2 ramman

3 kalbelia

(A) They all are based on lord Krishna’s life

(B) They are forms of classic dances of india

(C) They all come from southern part of india

(D) They all are under Representative List of the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity

  • UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.[1] This list is published by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and its members are elected by State parties meeting in UN General Assembly. Through a compendium of the different oral and intangible treasures of humankind worldwide, the program aims to draw attention to the importance of safeguarding intangible heritage, which UNESCO has identified as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression
  • The list was established in 2008 when the 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage took effect.
  • The Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage is a UNESCO treaty adopted by the UNESCO General Conference on 17 October 2003. The convention entered into force in 2006, after thirtieth instruments of ratification by UNESCO Member States. As of February 2018, 176 states have ratified, approved or accepted the convention
  • The Committee to the Convention publishes and keeps up to date two lists of intangible cultural heritage, which are
  • the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
  • the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding
  • UNESCO during its 12th session of Committee held at Jeju, South Korea. KumbhMela is the 14th intangible cultural heritage from India to be listed in UNESCO’s list.


  • It is one of the largest South Indian temple and an exemplary example of a fully realized Tamil architecture.
  • Built by Raja Raja Chola I between 1003 and 1010 AD, the temple is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Great Living Chola Temples",

(A) Brihadisvara Temple at Gangaikonda Cholapuram

(B)Brihadeeswarar Temple thanjavur

(C)Airavatesvara Temple

(D)Shore temple

  • Brihadishvara Temple, also referred to as Rajesvara Peruvudaiyaror Brihadeeswarar Temple, is a Hindu temple dedicated to Shivalocated in Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India. It is one of the largest South Indian temple and an exemplary example of a fully realized Tamil architecture. Built by Raja Raja Chola I between 1003 and 1010 AD, the temple is a part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Great Living Chola Temples", along with the Chola dynasty era Gangaikonda Cholapuram temple and Airavatesvara temple that are about 70 kilometres (43 mi) and 40 kilometres (25 mi) to its northeast respectively
  • inscriptions, frescoes and sculptures predominantly related to Shaivism, but also of Vaishnvaism and Shaktism traditions of Hinduism
  • Built out of granite, the vimana tower above the sanctum is one of the tallest in South India. The temple has a massive colonnaded prakara (corridor) and one of the largest Shiva lingas in India. It is also famed for the quality of its sculpture, as well as being the location that commissioned the brass Nataraja – Shiva as the lord of dance, in 11th century.
  • A spectrum of Hindu temple styles continued to develop from the 5th to the 9th century over the Chalukya era rule as evidenced in Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal, and then with the Pallava era as witnessed at Mamallapuram and other monuments. Thereafter, between 850 and 1280 CE, Cholas emerged as the dominant dynasty. The early Chola period saw a greater emphasis on securing their geopolitical boundaries and less emphasis on architecture. In the 10th century, within the Chola empire emerged features such as the multifaceted columns with projecting square capitals. This, states George Michell, signaled the start of the new Chola style. This South Indian style is most fully realized both in scale and detail in the Brihadeshvara temple built between 1003 and 1010 by the Chola king Rajaraja. The architect and engineer of the temple was Kunjara Mallan Raja Raja Rama Perunthachan as stated in inscriptions found at the temple
  • The Brihadisvara temple continued the Hindu temple traditions of South India by adopting architectural and decorative elements, but its scale significantly exceeded the temples constructed before the 11th century. The Chola era architects and artisans innovated the expertise to scale up and build, particularly with heavy stone and to accomplish the 63.4 metres (208 ft) high towering vimana
  • The Nandi (bull) facing the mukh-mandapam weighs about 25 tonnes. It is made of a single stone and is about 2 m in height, 6 m in length and 2.5 m in width. The image of Nandi is a monolithic one and is one of the largest in the country.


  • Regarding a temple :

1 It is one of the largest rock-cut ancient Hindu temples located in Maharashtra , India.

2 A megalith carved out of one single rock, it is considered one of the most remarkable cave temples in India

3 Its construction is generally attributed to the 8th century Rashtrakuta king Krishna I in 756-773 CE.

4 it appears to be based on the Virupaksha Temple at Pattadakal and the Kailasa temple at Kanchi

(A) Trimbakeshwar shiva temple

(B) Grishneshwar temple

(C) Kailasanath temple ellora

(D) Meenakshi temple

  • The Kailash or Kailasanatha temple is one of the largest rockcut ancient Hindu temples located in Ellora, Maharashtra, India. A megalith carved out of one single rock, it is considered one of the most remarkable cave temples in India because of its size, architecture and sculptural treatment
  • The Kailasanatha temple (Cave 16) is one of the 32 cave temples and monasteries known collectively as the Ellora Caves. Its construction is generally attributed to the 8th century Rashtrakuta king Krishna I in 756-773 CE. The temple architecture shows traces of Pallava and Chalukya styles.
  • The main shrine is very similar to (although much larger than) the Virupaksha Temple at Pattadakal, which itself is a replica of the Kailasa temple at Kanchi.
  • The Pattadakal Virupaksha Temple was commissioned by the Chalukyas of Badami to commemorate their victory over the Pallavas, who had constructed the Kailasa temple at Kanchi.
  • According to the Virupaksha temple inscriptions, the Chalukyas brought the Pallava artists to Pattadakal after defeating the Pallavas.
  • Dhavalikar theorizes that after defeating the Chalukyas, Krishna must have been impressed by the Virupaksha Temple located in their territory. As a result, he brought the sculptors and architects of the Virupaksha Temple (including some Pallava artists) to his own territory, and engaged them in the construction of the Kailasa temple at Ellora. If one assumes that the architects of the Virupaksha temple helped construct the Kailasa temple at Ellora, the construction of a massive temple during the reign of a single monarch does not seem impossible. The architects already had a blueprint and a prototype, which must have significantly reduced the effort involved in constructing a new temple.


  • Details regarding mahamastakabhisheka

1 this is an annual festival among Buddhists

2 gomateshwara statue is associated with it in state of Andhra

3 it was built by ganga dynasty

  • Choose correct options

(a)all are correct

(b)Only 3

(C)1 & 2


  • Bahubali (One With Strong Arms), a much revered figure among Jains, was the son of Adinath, the first tirthankara of Jainism, and the younger brother of Bharata Chakravartin. He is said to have meditated motionless for one year in a standing posture (kayotsarga) and that during this time, climbing plants grew around his legs. After his year of meditation, Bahubali is said to have attained omniscience (Kevala Gyana). According to Jain texts, Bahubali attained liberation from the cycle of births and deaths (moksha) at Mount Kailash and is revered as a liberated soul (Siddha) by the Jains
  • Kayotsarga (Sanskrit: कायोत्सर्गKāyōtsarga, Jain Prakrit: काउस्सग्गKāussagga) is a yogic posture which is an important part of the Jain meditation. It literally means "dismissing the body“ A tirthankara is represented either seated in yoga posture or standing in the kayotsarga posture. Kayotsarga means "to give up one's physical comfort and body movements", thus staying steady, either in a standing or other posture, and concentrating upon the true nature of the soul. It is one of the six essentials (avasyaka) of a Jain ascetic and one of the 28 primary attributes of a Digambara monk Twenty-one of the tÄ«rthankaras of Jainism are said to have attained moksha in the kayotsarga “standing meditation” posture. An example of unflinching standing meditation is that of Arihant Bahubali who is said to have stood in kayotsarga for a year

  • Bahubali is also called Gommateshwara because of the Gommateshwara statue dedicated to him and as lord Kammateshwara from the ancient temple inscriptions located in states of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. The statue was built by the Ganga dynasty minister and commander Chavundaraya; it is a 57-foot (17 m) monolith (statue carved from a single piece of rock) situated above a hill in Shravanabelagola in the Hassan district, Karnataka state, India. It was built circa 981 A.D. and is one of the largest free-standing statues in the world.
  • Western Ganga was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE. They are known as 'Western Gangas' to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas who in later centuries ruled over Kalinga (modern Odisha). The general belief is that the Western Gangas began their rule during a time when multiple native clans asserted their freedom due to the weakening of the Pallavaempire in South India, a geo-political event sometimes attributed to the southern conquests of Samudra Gupta. The Western Ganga sovereignty lasted from about 350 to 550 CE, initially ruling from Kolar and later, moving their capital to Talakadu on the banks of the Kaveri River in modern Mysore district.
  • After the rise of the imperial Chalukyas of Badami, the Gangas accepted Chalukya overlordship and fought for the cause of their overlords against the Pallavas of Kanchi. The Chalukyas were replaced by the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta in 753 CE as the dominant power in the Deccan.
  • Kevala jñāna means omniscience in Jainism and is roughly translated as absolute knowledge[1] or supreme knowledge.
  • Kevala jnana is believed to be an intrinsic quality of all souls. This quality is masked by karmic particles that surround the soul. Every soul has the potential to obtain omniscience by shedding off these karmic particles. Jain scriptures speak of twelve stages through which the soul achieves this goal. A soul who has attained kevala jnana is called a kevalin (के वलिन्).[3] According to the Jains, only kevalins can comprehend objects in all aspects and manifestations; others are only capable of partial knowledge.
  • The views of two sects of Jainism, Digambara and ÅšvÄ“tāmbaraJains differ on the subject of kevalins. According to Digambaras, a kevalin does not experience hunger or thirst, whereas according to Svetambaras, a kevalin has normal human needs and he travels and preaches too. Digambara Jains believe that they do not act in the normal sense of the word, that they sit motionless in padmasana, and that their bodies emit Divyadhvani, a sacred sound which is interpreted by their followers as the fundamental truth.According to both traditions, the last kevalin was a disciple of one of the eleven chief disciples of the last tirthankara, MahāvÄ«ra; his name is recorded as Jambuswami. It is also believed that no one after Jambuswami will have the ability to obtain kevala jnana
  • water from 1008 kalashas (pots) will be poured over the Gommata, as a purification rite. The abhisheka (ceremonial bathing) then begins to the heralding of bugles and the beat of drums. Milk from kalashas and large containers is poured on Gommateshwara, followed by clouds of white rice powder. Next, the statue is anointed with coconut water and sugarcane juice. Liquid turmeric and red sandalwood paste then cover the Gommata in hues of amber and mahogany. Next comes the libation of ashtagandha - a combination of eight scented substances - followed lastly by a shower of flower petals. The splendid ceremony ends with the washing of the Gommata with the clear waters of the poorna kumbhas and the arathi of lit lamps.
  • Karkala
  • Dharmastala
  • Venur
  • Gommatagiri
  •  Kumbhoj
  • Aretipur


  • Regarding sri ranganathaswamy temple

1 It’s the biggest temple dedicated to lord shiva in kerala

2 The srirangam temple is the largest temple compound in india and one of the largest religious complexes in the world

3 The temple site is on a large island bounded by the periyar river and kollidam river

4 Rajagopuram(shrine of the main gateway) is the tallest temple tower in asia

  • Choose the correct options

(A) Only 1

(B) 2 &4

(C) 1,2 &4

(D) All correct

  • The Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple or Thiruvarangam is a Hindu temple dedicated to Ranganatha, a reclining form of the Hindu deityVishnu, located in Srirangam, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu, India.Constructed in the Tamil style of architecture, this temple is glorified in the Thiviya Pirabandham, the early medieval Tamil literaturecanon of the Alvar saints of Bhakti movement from the 6th to 9th centuries AD. The temple tops the list among the 108 Divya Desams dedicated to Vishnu
  • It is one of the most illustrious Vaishnava temples in South India rich in legend and history. The temple has played an important role in Vaishnavism history starting with the 11th-century career of Ramanuja and his predecessors Nathamuni and Yamunacharya in Srirangam. Its location, on an island between the Kollidam and Cauvery rivers, has rendered it vulnerable to flooding as well as the rampaging of invading armies which repeatedly commandeered the site for military encampment. The temple was looted and destroyed by the Delhi Sultanate armies in a broad plunder raid on various cities of the Tamil Pandyan kingdom in early 14th century
  • The temple was rebuilt in late 14th century, the site fortified and expanded with many more gopurams in the 16th and 17th centuries. It was one of the hubs of early Bhakti movement with a devotional singing and dance tradition, but this tradition stopped during the 14th century and was revived in a limited way much later
  • Numerous inscriptions suggest that this Hindu temple served not only as a spiritual center, but also a major economic and charitable institution that operated education and hospital facilities, ran a free kitchen, and financed regional infrastructure projects from the gifts and donations it received.
  • Thousand pillar mandapam is a theatre like structure made from granite. It was built during the Vijayanagara rule period. It has a central wide aisle with seven side aisles on each side with pillars set in a square pattern.

  • The temple is an active Hindu house of worship and follows Thenkalai tradition of Sri Vaishnavism. The annual 21-day festival conducted during the Tamil month of Margazhi (December– January) attracts 1 million visitors. The temple complex has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and is in UNESCO's tentative list
  • Sri Vaishnava Sampradaya or Sri Vaishnavism is a denomination within the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism. The name is derived from Sri referring to goddess Lakshmi as well as a prefix that means "sacred, revered", and god Vishnu who are together revered in this tradition
  • The tradition traces its roots to the ancient Vedas and Pancaratratexts in Sanskrit and the devotional love of the divine (bhakti) popularized by the Alvars with Tamil texts, songs and music.The founder of Sri Vaishnavism is traditionally attributed as Nathamuni of the 10th century CE, its central philosopher has been Ramanuja of the 11th century who developed the Vishishtadvaita ("qualified nondualism") Vedanta sub-school of Hindu philosophy. Tradition is based on the Vishistadvaita vedanta philosophy derived from Sanskrit Veda and Tamil Divya Prabandham. The tradition split into two subtraditions around the 16th-century called the Vadakalai (sect giving Sanskrit Veda the first preference) and Thenkalai (sect giving Tamil Divya Prabandham the first preference)
  • The main shrine for Ranganatha is in the innermost courtyard. The sanctum has a golden vimanam (crown tower over the sanctum sanctorum). It is shaped like the Tamil omkara (om symbol), shows anthropomorphic Paravasudeva on its gable, has an etching of Ramanuja as well on it, and is plated with gold. Inside, a 6-metre (20 ft) edifice shown Sri Ranganthar reclining on Adisesha, the coiled serpent
  • There are 21 gopurams (tower gateways), among which the towering Rajagopuram(shrine of the main gateway) is the tallest temple tower in Asia.
  • Nalayira Divya Prabhandam is a collection of 4000 hymns sung by twelve azhwars saints spread over 300 years (from the late 6th to 9th century AD) and collected by Nathamuni (910–990 AD). Divya Desams refer to 108 Vishnu temples that are mentioned in Nalayira Divya Prabandham. 105 of these are located in India, 1 in Nepal, while 2 are located outside of the Earthly realms.
  • Andal is the only female Alvar among the 12 Alvar saints of South India. The Alvar saints are known for their affiliation to the Srivaishnava tradition of Hinduism. Active in the 8th-century, with some suggesting 7th-century,Andal is credited with the great Tamil works, Thiruppavai and Nachiar Tirumozhi, which are still recited by devotees during the winter festival season of Margazhi.
  • Andal attained Sri Ranganatha on completion of her Thiruppavai (a composition of 30 verses) in Srirangam
  • Kambar (Kamban in casual address) (c. 1180, Therazhundur, Nagapattinam district, India – 1250) was a medieval Tamil poet and the author of the Ramavataram, popularly known as Kambaramayanam, the Tamil version of the epic Ramayana
  • Kambar is a 12th-century Tamil poet who composed Kamba Ramayanam, a work inspired from the epic, Valmiki Ramayana. He is believed to have come to the temple to get the approval of his work from scholars.
  • In Bhagawat Gita, lord Krishna has described the month of Mrigashirsha as one of his manifestations.
  • The month of Dhanur Maasa or name Margazhi (Dec 14th to Jan 14th), derives from the star Mrigashirsha and is considered very auspicious month for religious services. During this month the sun transits through Sagittarius sign, the house of Jupiter and ends with the Makara Sankranti.
  • UNESCO Asia-Pacific awards for cultural heritage conservation programme is aimed at acknowledging efforts taken to restore and conserve historical structures without affecting their heritage value.
  • The awards are classified under four categories – Awards of Distinction, Awards of Merit, Award of Excellence and Award for New Design in Heritage Context.


  • Regarding the losar festival

1 It is the harvest festival of apatani tribe in mizoram

2 It is mainly celebrated only in north easten part of india

3 It is related to buddhism

  • Choose the correct option

(A) Only 1

(B) 1 & 2

(C) 3 only

(D) All are correct

  • The 10 day long festival began with illumination of religious and residential places and by visiting monasteries for prayer.
  • Losar is a festival in Tibetan Buddhism. The holiday is celebrated on various dates depending on location (Tibet, Nepal and Bhutan) and tradition.The holiday is a new year's festival, celebrated on the first day of the lunisolar Tibetan calendar, which corresponds to a date in February or March in the Gregorian calendar.
  • The variation of the festival in Nepal is called Lhochhar and is observed about eight weeks earlier than the Tibetan Losar

  • Losar occurs near or on the same day as the Chinese New Year and the Mongolian New Year, but the traditions of Losar are unique to Tibet, and predate both Indian and Chinese influences.
  • The Apatani, or Tanw, also known by Apa and Apa Tani, are a tribal group of people living in the Ziro valley in the Lower Subansiri district of Arunachal Pradesh in India
  • Their wet rice cultivation system and their agriculture system are extensive even without the use of any farm animals or machines. So is their sustainable social forestry system.
  • UNESCO has proposed the Apatani valley for inclusion as a World Heritage Site for its "extremely high productivity" and "unique" way of preserving the ecology. They have two major festivals - Dree and Myoko.
  • In July, the agricultural festival of Dree is celebrated with prayers for a bumper harvest and prosperity of all humankind.
  • Pakhu-Itu, Daminda, Pree dance, etc., are the main cultural programmes performed in the festival.
  • Myoko is a festival to celebrate friendship similar to modern friendship day but unlike the latter which lasts only for a day, it is celebrated for almost a month long, from the end of March to the end of April. Apatanis trace their descent patrilineally
  • The Apatanis, one of the major ethnic groups of eastern Himalayas, have a distinct civilization with systematic land use practices and rich traditional ecological knowledge of natural resources management and conservation, acquired over the centuries through informal experimentation. The tribe is known for their colorful culture with various festivals, intricate handloom designs, skills in cane and bamboo crafts, and vibrant traditional village councils called bulyañ. This has made Ziro Valley a good example of a living cultural landscape where man and environment have harmoniously existed together in a state of interdependence even through changing times, such co-existence being nurtured by the traditional customs and spiritual belief systems
  • Novel based on Apatani tribe of Arunachal Pradesh titled Into the Hidden Valley has won 2016 MM Bennetts Award for Historical Fiction in the United Kingdom. The novel is authored by Stuart Blackburn. He was presented with this award at the HNS Conference in Oxford.


  • Choose right matches :

(A)1, 2, 3 ,4

(B)1, 4, 5 ,6

(C)5 & 6


  • Darjeeling tea is a tea from the Darjeeling district in West Bengal, India. It is available in black, green, white and oolong.
  • When properly brewed, it yields a thin-bodied, light-coloured infusion with a floral aroma. The flavour can include a tinge of astringent tannic characteristics and a musky spiciness sometimes described as "muscatel"
  • Unlike most Indian teas, Darjeeling tea is normally made from the small-leaved Chinese variety of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, rather than the large-leaved Assam plant (C. sinensis var. assamica). Traditionally, Darjeeling tea is made as black tea; however, Darjeeling oolong and green teas are becoming more commonly produced and easier to find, and a growing number of estates are also producing white teas.
  • After the enactment of Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection Act, 1999) in 2003, Darjeeling tea became the first Indian product to receive a GI tag, in 2004–05 through the Indian Patent Office
  • Pochampally Saree or Pochampalli Ikat is a saree made in Bhoodan Pochampally, Yadadri Bhuvanagiri district, Telangana State, India. They have traditional geometric patterns in Ikat style of dyeing. The intricate geometric designs find their way into sarees and dress materials. The Indian government's official air carrier, Air India, has its cabin crew wear specially designed pochampally silk sarees
  • Locally, Pochampally Ikat is known as Pogudubandhu, Chitki and Buddabhashi in Telangana where it is produced
  • Telangana is one of the ancient Ikat weaving centers in India, along with Gujarat and neighboring Odisha
  • It has found place in UNESCO tentative list of world heritage sites as part of "iconic saree weaving clusters of India". Ikat, or ikkat, is a dyeing technique used to pattern textiles that employs resist dyeing on the yarns prior to dyeing and weaving the fabric.

  • Located on the banks of the river Varaha in Vishakhapatnam district of AP, is a small village called Etikoppaka. Made in the Etikoppaka region of Andhra Pradesh, these toys are made with lacquer color and are traditionally known as Etikoppaka toys or Etikoppaka Bommalu. The village is very famous for its toys made of wood. The toys are also called as lacquer toys because of the colours used.
  • With this, Etikoppaka toys join elite products from Andhra Pradesh such as Kondapalli toys, Tirupati laddu, Bobbili Veena, Srikalahasthi Kalamkari, Uppada Jamdani sarees and Shadow puppets to have coveted GI tag. Prosecco is an Italian white wine.
  •  Prosecco controlled designation of origin can be spumante("sparkling wine"), frizzante ("semisparkling wine"), or tranquillo ("still wine"). It is made from Glera grapes
  • Thewa is a special art of jewelry making which involves fusing of intricately worked-out sheet gold on molten glass. It evolved in Pratapgarh district, Rajasthan India. Its origin dates back to the Mughal age.
  • Nathu ji Soni invented the process; the secrets of the craft that passed directly from father to son over the generations remains it in the family only, who call themselves 'Raj-Sonis’. Many of the members from this family have been awarded by UNESCO, National & State Government.
  • The craftsman removes the excess gold creating a design often based on the Hindu mythology or Mughal court scenes, historical events or with flora and fauna motifs.
  • Like the rest of Rajasthan handicrafts, the glass works of Pratapgarh are unique in both design and usage.
  • Shilp Guru is an award conferred by Government of India every year to the master craftspersons in innovating different styles and designs of the traditional craftsmanship, to continue with the highest level of aesthetic character, quality and skill in the traditional Indian Handicrafts .
  • The Shilpguru awards were first introduced in 2002 where 10 eminent Master Craftpersons were honoured with "Shilp Guru" title by the President of India.
  • The award is presented along with Sant Kabir Awards and National Awards to Master Craftspersons and master weavers, introduced in 1965
  • Sant Kabir Award is an Indian Government award conferred to outstanding weavers who have made valuable contribution in keeping alive the handloom heritage. It was established for dedication in building up linkages between the past, present and future through dissemination of knowledge on traditional skills and designs by Ministry of Textiles, Government of India.The award was christened in the memory of sant Kabir, a 15th-century mystic poet and sant of India.
  • The award is presented by the President of India, along with Shilp Guru Awards and National Awards to Master Craftspersons and master weavers, introduced in 1965
  • Kotpad Handloom is a vegetable-dyed fabric woven by the tribal weavers of the Mirgan community of Kotpad village in Koraput district, Odisha, India. Cotton sarees with solid border and Pata Anchal, duppatta with typical Buties / motifs, Scolrfs on cotton, silk, handloom stoles, and dress materials are all dyed with organic dyes. The natural dye is manufactured from the aul tree grown in this area. The Kotpad tussar silk saree with tribal art and Kotpad handloom fabrics with natural color is its specialty.
  • Kotpad handloom fabric is the first item from Odisha that received the Geographical Indication of India tag, in 2005. The Mirgan community of Kotpad is famous for their exquisite organic dyed textile. They usually weave this textile for "Bhotada", "Dharua" and other motifs of their neighboring tribal communities.