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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 26 November 2021

Why Non-Personal, What’s Critical ... & Snooping? | ToI

  • The Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) examining the Personal Data Protection Bill 2019 adopted its report on Monday after two years of discussions.
  • The committee’s recommendations will now be tabled in Parliament in the upcoming winter session.
  • Much media reporting has been on the privacy concern on allowing government agencies broad exemptions, and seven opposition MPs’ dissent notes on the issue.

  • What are the four key JPC recommendations?
  • The report recommends that the same regulator should govern both personal data (data about an individual) and non-personal data (anonymised data, business data).
  • The JPC also recommends that the government should set up certification labs for testing the integrity of all digital and IoT devices.
  • Sensitive and critical personal data must be stored in India
  • The committee recommends doing away with the quantum of penalty, leaving it up to the government to prescribe penalties through rules.
  • What is non-personal data and why is its inclusion worrying?
  • It is data that is not about any individual.
  • e.g. - Data about traffic or congested routes picked up by a ride-share platform.
  • Businesses argue that such data is proprietary, borne out of significant investments made by the business in data collection and analytics.
  • JPC has suggested that the same authority should look at both.
  • What are other industry’s areas of concern with the report?
  • The committee recommends a compliance window of 24 months, with suggestions for phased implementation of the law.
  • What constitutes critical data will be decided through government notifications issued from time to time.

 

  • What other privacy concerns are there?
  • Long-standing concerns around our surveillance regime
  • Extending privacy principles to law enforcement agencies could strengthen individuals’ privacy.
  • Having strong checks and balances over government surveillance could also help India seek free flows of data from regions like Europe that restrict transfers to other countries, unless they have sufficient protections.

Good, Bad & Ugly | ToI

  • Findings from the Fifth National Family Health Survey confirm that India’s total fertility rate (TFR), the average number of children born per woman, has finally dipped below the replacement level of 2.1.
  • Another interesting find is that women could be outnumbering men (1020:1000).
  • Also, sex ratio at birth, a key statistic, is still skewed towards boys.
  • Only three states – Bihar, UP and Jharkhand – have TFRs over 2.1 now.
  • Great strides made in educating the girl child may explain the national shift to some extent.
  • ASER surveys suggest that between 2006 and 2018, girls out of school between ages 11-14 fell to 4.1% from 10.3%.
  • Girls aged between 15-16 not enrolled in school dipped to 13.5% from over 20%.
  • Women aged 15-19 pregnant or already mothers declined in this period from 16% to 6.8%.
  • Nearly 80% have bank accounts from 54% in NFHS-4 (2015-16)
  • 54% have mobile phones against 46% earlier
  • 77% used hygienic methods during menstruation against 57% earlier.
  • But women’s economic situation hasn’t improved.
  • Women who reported working in the past 12 months only marginally rose to 25.4% from 24.6% earlier.
  • Other worries: Health insurance coverage has reached merely 41% of households.
  • Rising figures of anaemic women and children since 2015-16 – 67% of children under 5 and nearly 60% of women under 60 (against the global average of 33% anaemic women in reproductive age) – point to intensifying malnutrition that India’s food security and nutrition supplementation schemes aren’t addressing adequately.
  • Progress like 88% institutional births against 78% earlier signify that secondary healthcare systems – community and district hospitals – are accessible to more people.
  • A functional public health system obviates out-of-pocket spending on medical needs, which is a major cause of people slipping into poverty.
  • Steadily falling TFR also implies an ageing population and greater morbidity burden.

Airport Lessons | ToI

  • The Jewar or the Noida International Airport, a greenfield project managed by Zurich Airport International, will hopefully keep its stated timeline.
  • When it starts operations, it will be the second international airport in NCR.
  • Both international airports in NCR will then be under private management.
  • Airports Economic Regulatory Authority (AERA), regulates airport tariffs.
  • GoI has been a direct beneficiary of the process, which has also had indirect economic benefits from the increasing traffic – 341 million passengers in 2019-20.
  • Airports Authority of India has earned Rs 30,069 crore from all its PPP ventures till 2020-21, a revenue stream that allows it to develop airfields in locations that can’t attract private capital right now.
  • However, the future of greenfield airports and expansion of existing ones will depend on states.
  • National Civil Aviation policy expects them to acquire land and provide it free for airports.

Setting the tone at Glasgow, the job ahead in Delhi

  • With current per capita emissions that are less than half the global average, India’s pledge to reach ‘net zero’ emissions by 2070 has cemented India’s credentials as a global leader.
  • The emissions of all others who have pledged “net zero’ by 2050 are above the global average.
  • India successfully challenged the 40-year-old frame of global climate policy that pointed a finger at developing countries.
  • The rich countries will need to do more and step up closer to their share of the carbon budget.
  • India’s stand also signals that it will not act under external pressure, as requiring equal treatment is the hallmark of a global power, and will have an impact on other issues.
  • Coal is the most abundant energy source, essential for base load in electrification, and the production of steel and cement.
  • Its use declines after the saturation level of infrastructure is reached.
  • “CARBON COLONIALISM”
  • That India and China working together forced the G7 to make a retraction has signalled the coming of a world order in which the G7 no longer sets the rules.
  • After 40 years there is more specific language on both finance and adaptation finally recognising that costs and near-term effects of climate change will hit the poorest countries hardest.
  • India is urbanising as it is industrialising, moving directly to electrification, renewable energy and electric vehicles, and a digital economy instead of a focus on the internal combustion engine.
  • Most of the infrastructure required has still to be built and automobiles are yet to be bought.
  • India will not be replacing current systems and will be making investments, not incurring costs.
  • Climate change has to be addressed by the West by reducing consumption, not just greening it.
  • Mobility from cars and aircraft to buses and trains, and nutrition from animal and processed food to a seasonal plant-based diet’
  • Expanding renewable energy, electrifying cars and public transport and increasing energy and material efficiency’
  • Achieving a more equal distribution of wealth with a minimum level of prosperity and affordable energy use for all.
  • After the Stockholm Declaration on the Global Environment, the Constitution was amended in 1976 to include Protection and Improvement of Environment as a fundamental duty
  • Under Article 253, Parliament has the power to make laws for implementing international treaties and agreements and can legislate on the preservation of the natural environment.
  • Parliament used Article 253 to enact the Environment Protection Act to implement the decisions reached at the Stockholm Conference.
  • The decisions at COP26 enable a new set of legislation around ecological limits, energy and land use, including the efficient distribution and use of electricity, urban design and a statistical system providing inputs for sustainable well-being.

NEWS

  • PM Modi says, Noida Airport will become logistical gateway of north India; Uttar Pradesh becomes only state to have five international airports
  • President Ram Nath Kovind to lead the nation in celebrating Constitution Day
  • Centre cautions states as new Covid variant detected in South Africa, Hong Kong and Botswana; Asks them to conduct rigorous screening of all incoming passengers
  • India’s Covid vaccination coverage crosses 120 crore mark
  • Rating agency Moody's says, India's economic growth will rebound strongly; Pegs India's GDP growth at 9.3 percent in 2022
  • Home Minister addresses Annual Session and AGM of Indian Chamber of Commerce through video conferencing
  • Indian Railways rolls back prices of platform tickets to pre-Covid era rates
  • Centre reiterates commitment to release funds for proper implementation of MGNREGA
  • External Affairs Minister Dr. S. Jaishankar to chair virtual meet with Foreign Ministers of Russia, China
  • Maharashtra administers 11 crore doses of Covid-19 with the help of innovative drives, says Health Minister Rajesh Tope
  • Maha govt to reopen schools for Class 1 to 7 in urban areas and for Classes 1 to 4 in rural areas from Dec1
  • Kerala confirms 5,978 new COVID-19 positive cases
  • J&K administration to merge 2,000 schools to balance teachers, students ratio