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The Hindu Editorial Analysis | PDF Download

Date: 26 April 2019

MCQ 1

  1. The International Air Transport Association (IATA)is a trade association of the world’s airlines
  2. IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards. It is headquartered in Ottawa, Canada
  • Choose correct

(A)Only 1

(B)Only 2

(C) Both

(D)None

MCQ 2

  1. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations.
  2. CORSIA is the air traffic rules it developed for cargo movement
  • Choose correct

(A)Only 1

(B)Only 2

(C) Both

(D)None

MCQ 3

  1. Government’s Think tank Niti Aayog has agreed to the proposal of the Dental Council of India which had sought to allow dentists to practice as general physicians without any additional course
  2. IMA has welcomed the move as the acute shortage of doctors is there in the country
  • Choose correct

(A)Only 1

(B)Only 2

(C) Both

(D)None

MCQ 4

  • In the startup fields unicorn term is used normally.it means
  1. A failed startup
  2. A startup that has got the venture funding
  3. A startup that has got the angel investment
  4. None
  • A unicorn is a privately held startup company valued at over $1 billion. The term was coined in 2013 by venture capitalist Aileen Lee, choosing the mythical animal to represent the statistical rarity of such successful ventures.

MCQ 5

  • Which language is not among UN’s official language
  1. Italian
  2. Spanish
  3. French
  4. Arabic

MCQ 6

  • World English day is celebrated on
  1. April 22
  2. April 23
  3. April 24
  4. April 21
  •  No immunity like MPs to judges
  •  Judge: An impartial referee & unbiased interpreter
  •  Lost reputation is irredeemable
  •  Primary disregard for ordinary precept of due process
  •  Issue of irreparable damage to reputation
  •  Still after Jan. 2018 incident, The CJI continues to enjoy unquestioned authority over allocation of judicial work and over selection of Benches, even in cases where a conflict of interest is to be presumed.
  •  Justice has also been immortalized in article 14 of the international covenant on civil and political rights, which states that “all persons shall be equal before the courts and tribunals,” that everyone “shall be entitled to a fair and public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal established by law”.
  • India is a party to this & our constitution also gives guarantee in article 14
  • These are no doubt extraordinary circumstances, but to advance the cause of justice, it’s important that basic procedural norms are respected.
  •  Supreme court needs to step up, to collectively show us that it can establish an ethical precedent
  •  Court’s institutional integrity is at stake here.
  •  Due process is integral to the court’s foundations and to the constitution’s guarantee of equal protection.

Uncertain times

  • India needs to diversify its oil supplier base and increase domestic sources of energy
  • The oil market is in ferment once again with a great deal of uncertainty over supplies. On Monday the United States announced that it would not extend beyond May 1 the 180- day waiver it had granted to eight countries, including India, to purchase oil from Iran. This caused the price of Brent crude oil to witness a sudden jump to more than $75, from last week’s close of $71.97, as traders expected the withdrawal of the waivers to adversely affect the supply of oil in the market. The price of Brent crude, it is worth noting, has been rising steadily in the last few months, and has increased by almost 50% since it hit a low of about $50 in December, as a result of the decision of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) to restrict their output to boost prices. India imports more than 10% of its crude oil from Iran, so the government faces the immediate challenge of having to find alternative suppliers to meet its huge energy needs. Even more worrying is the likely negative impact higher oil prices will have on India’s current account deficit, fiscal deficit and inflation in the wider economy. The current account deficit, which narrowed to 2.5% of GDP in the December quarter thanks to lower oil prices, will likely worsen going forward. The fiscal deficit, which has been widening in advance of the elections, is also likely to get increasingly out of control. While inflation is relatively benign at the moment, any further acceleration in price gains will tie the hands of the Reserve Bank of India.
  • It may, however, be hard to say for sure that the jump in the price of oil this week, and over the last few months, marks a secular rise in the price of the commodity. The entry of U.S. shale producers into the oil market has put a lid on the price of oil as freely competing shale suppliers have been happy to increase their output whenever oil prices rise significantly. Even this week, the oil market has been torn between the news of the end to the waivers granted to oil imports from Iran and competing news of the increased supply of oil pouring into the market from the U.S. Higher oil prices also make it lucrative each time for members of OPEC to cheat on their commitments to restrict supply. If India is to protect its interests in the ever-volatile global oil market, the government will need to take steps to diversify its supplier base and also work towards increasing domestic sources of energy supplies. Opening up the renewable energy sector for more investments will also help avoid over-dependence on oil from the global market to meet the country’s ever-increasing energy needs.

Breaking new ground

  • The Madras High Court’s recent judgment is truly path-breaking for the LGBTQ community
  • A judgment of the Madras High Court, Madurai Bench, has extended enjoyment of civil rights, especially those pertaining to marriage, to transpersons. While this is path-breaking for much of the country, the judgment also opens doors to the larger LGBTQ community for availing civil rights including marriage, succession and inheritance.
  • In the judgment delivered in Arunkumar and Sreeja v. Inspector General of Registration and Others (2019), the Madras High Court has held that a properly solemnised marriage between a male and transwoman is valid under the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, and the Registrar of Marriages is bound to register the same. The judgment quotes NALSA v. Union of India (2014), which held that transgender persons have the right to decide their “self-identified gender”.
  • The Madurai Bench judgment, however, breaks new ground when it comes to the interpretation of the statutory terms found in the Hindu Marriage Act, especially that of bride. It states that the expression “bride” occurring in Section 5 of the Hindu Marriage Act cannot have a static or immutable meaning. As noted in Justice G.P. Singh’s Principles of Statutory Interpretation, the court is free to apply the current meaning of a statute to present-day conditions.
  • The nine-judge Bench in Justice (Retd.) K.S. Puttaswamy made a telling reference to the landmark judgment, Obergefell v. Hodges (2015), wherein the U.S. Supreme Court held that the “fundamental right to marry is guaranteed to same-sex couples by both Due Process Clause and Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.”
  • The Madurai Bench judgment has revised the legal construction of gender and the conventional interpretation of terms such as “bride” and “bridegroom”. Now, when this is read along with the Supreme Court’s explicit reference to the American court’s guarantee of right to marry to homosexual couples shows that there cannot be a legal bar any more to extending civil rights such as marriage, succession or inheritance to LGBTQ couples who have decided to get married consensually, have married in accordance with the existing laws and are not in violation of any other laws.
  • At the preliminary hearings before the Supreme Court in Navtej Singh Johar, the Solicitor General, representing the Government of India, sought the curtailing of the scope of the case to that of the decriminalization aspect or the constitutional validity of Section 377 of Indian Penal Code, 1860 alone. The Supreme Court, consequently, did not have an opportunity to examine the bundle of rights that were to naturally arise from the striking down of Section 377.
  • Therefore, in this context, the present judgment is truly path-breaking for the LGBTQ community, which is denied equal protection of laws with regard to civil rights.