- Which of the following can be threats to the biodiversity of a geographical area?(2012)
- Global warming
- Fragmentation of habitat
- Invasion of alien species
- Promotion of vegetarianism
- Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
- In which one among the following categories of protected areas in India are local people not allowed to collect and use the biomass?(2012)
(a) Biosphere Reserves
(b) National Parks
(c) Wetlands declared under Ramsar Convention
(d) Wildlife Sanctuaries
- Biomass gasification is considered to be one of the sustainable solutions to the power crisis in India. In this context, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2012)
- Coconut shells, groundnut shells and rice husk can be used in biomass gasification.
- The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification consist of hydrogen and carbon dioxide only.
- The combustible gases generated from biomass gasification can be used for direct heat generation but not in internal combustion engines.
- Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
- Consider the following organisms: (2013)
- Which of the above is / are used as biofertilizer / biofertilizers
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(e) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only
- The most important strategy for the conservation of biodiversity together with traditional human life is the establishment of
- biosphere reserves
- botanical gardens
- national parks
- wildlife sanctuaries
- With reference to Balance of Payments, which of the following constitutes/constitute the Current Account?
- Balance of trade
- Foreign assets
- Balance of invisibles
- Special Drawing Right
- Select the correct answer using the code given below.
- 1 only
- 2 and 3
- 1 and 3
- 1, 2 and 4
- Invisibles are both international payments for services (as opposed to goods), as well as movements of money without exchange for goods or services. These invisibles are called 'transfer payments' or 'remittances' and may include money sent from one country to another by an individual, business, government or non-governmental organisations (NGO) – often charities.
- An individual remittance may include money sent to a relative overseas. Business transfers may include profits sent by a foreign subsidiary to a parent company or money invested by a business in a foreign country. Bank loans to foreign countries are also included in this category, as are license fees paid for the use of patents and trademarks. Government transfers may involve loans made or official aid given to foreign countries, while transfers made by NGO's include money designated for charitable work within foreign countries, respectively.
- Consider the following specific stages of demographic transition associated with economic development : (2012)
- Low birthrate with low death rate
- High birthrate with high death rate
- High birthrate with low death rate
- Select the correct order of the above stages using the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2, 3
(b) 2, 1, 3
(c) 2, 3, 1
(d) 3, 2, 1
- If the interest rate is decreased in an economy, it will
- decrease the consumption expenditure in the economy
- increase the tax collection of the Government
- increase the investment expenditure in the economy
- increase the total savings in the economy
Humanise the law
- The draft Indian Forest Act must be redrawn to rid it of bureaucratic overreach
- Modernising colonial era laws is a long-delayed project, but the draft Indian Forest Act, 2019 is woefully short of being a transformative piece of legislation. The original law, the Indian Forest Act, 1927, is an incongruous relic, its provisions having been drafted to suit the objectives of a colonial power that had extractive uses for forests in mind.
- A new law enacted should make a departure and be aimed to expand India’s forests, and ensure the well-being of traditional forest-dwellers and biodiversity in these landscapes.
- The need is for a paradigm that encourages community-led, scientifically validated conservation. This is critical, for only 2.99% of India’s geographic area is classified as very dense forest; the rest of the green cover of a total of 21.54% is nearly equally divided into open and moderately dense forest, according to the State of Forest Report 2017.
- The draft Bill reinforces the idea of bureaucratic control of forests, providing immunity for actions such as use of firearms by personnel to prevent an offence.
- The hardline policing approach is reflected in the emphasis on creating infrastructure to detain and transport the accused, and to penalize entire communities through denial of access to forests for offences by individuals. Such provisions invariably affect poor inhabitants, and run counter to the empowering and egalitarian goals that produced the Forest Rights Act.
- India’s forests play a key role in moderating the lives of not just the adivasis and other traditional dwellers, but everyone in the subcontinent, through their impact on the climate and monsoons. Their health can be improved only through collaboration. Any new forest law must, therefore, aim to reduce conflicts, incentivise tribals and stop diversion for non-forest uses. This can be achieved by recognizing all suitable landscapes as forests and insulating them from commercial exploitation. Such an approach requires a partnership with communities on the one hand, and scientists on the other.
- For decades now, the Forest Department has resisted independent scientific evaluation of forest health and biodiversity conservation outcomes.
- In parallel, environmental policy has weakened public scrutiny of decisions on diversion of forests for destructive activities such as mining and large dam construction.
- Impact assessment reports have mostly been reduced to a farce, and the public hearings process has been diluted. When a new government takes over, the entire issue should go back to the drawing board. The government needs to launch a process of consultation, beginning with the State governments to ensure that a progressive law is adopted by all States, including those that have their own versions of the existing Act. The Centre must hear the voice of all stakeholders and communities, including independent scientific experts. heterogeneous society such as India, even though anti-hate laws that are in place for regulation impose a certain amount of restriction on the fundamental right to freedom of speech and expression guaranteed under Article 19(1)(a) of the Constitution, the Apex Court of the country has time and again upheld their constitutionality on the grounds of being a reasonable restriction aimed at maintaining public order under Article 19(2).
- 123(3A) The promotion of, or attempt to promote, feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of the citizens of India on grounds of religion, race, caste, community, or language, by a candidate or his agent or any other person with the consent of a candidate or his election agent for the furtherance of the prospects of the election of that candidate or for prejudicially affecting the election of any candidate
- 125.Promoting enmity between classes in connection with election.— Any person who in connection with an election under this Act promotes or attempts to promote on grounds of religion, race, caste, community or language, feelings of enmity or hatred, between different classes of the citizens of India shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both
- 125A. Penalty for filing false affidavit, etc.—A candidate who himself or through his proposer, with intent to be elected in an election,
- 126.Prohibition of public meetings during period of forty-eight hours ending with hour fixed for conclusion of poll
- Venkatraman Ramakrishnan has been President of the Society since 2015