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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 01 September 2021

Pyrrhic victory | TH

  • Imran Khan was the first world leader who wholeheartedly welcomed the Taliban’s capture of Kabul on August 15 — before its fall
  • August 16: Afghans have “broken the shackles of slavery
  • Taliban’s capture of Kabul can be seen as the success
  • Pakistan has a problem with the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan, the ideological twin of the Taliban, that has carried out deadly attacks inside Pakistan.
  • August 26: Kabul blasts
  • Islamic State Khorasan Province (IS-K)
  • When the U.S. backed the Mujahideen in the 1980s, it might never have imagined that the Taliban would rise from the Mujahideen and host the al Qaeda that would carry out the deadliest attack on America since the Second World War.
  • A stable Afghanistan which treats its people with dignity and does not provide safe havens to transnational terrorist organisations is in the best interests of all regional powers, including Pakistan.

The next step in democratic evolution is overdue | TH

  • A democratic nation, or any nation, is also composed of structures — its constitution and laws.
  • What distinguishes democratic nations from authoritarian ones is the liveliness of citizens’ participation in the governance of their nation.
  • In healthy democracies, citizens participate effectively in the shaping of the policies and laws by which they are governed.
  • Democratic constitutions provide elected assemblies for citizensrepresentatives to shape new policies and pass laws.
  • Open-minded deliberation in these forums is necessary to meet the requirements of democracy.
  • When these forums become chambers for close-minded partisan politics, they cannot find solutions to the complex, systemic problems that all nations must address in the 21st century: climate change, historical inequities, increasing economic inequalities, and violence brewing with discontents within.
  • The U.S. houses of Congress seem ham-strung by party politics; debates in the Indian Parliament have degenerated into floor battles with missiles; and, citizens of many European democracies are dismayed by the performance of their elected institutions.
  • Constitutions, elections, and assemblies are not all that a democracy needs to function.
  • Democracies have life from what happens outside the elected chambers and what happens between elections.
  • People who belong to different political factions, practise different religions, and have different histories within the history of their nation, must listen to each other, and learn to live democratically together every day of their lives.
  • Sadly, the cracks in the Indian nation dividing ‘people like us’ from ‘people not like us’, are widening in institutions at the top as well as in relationships on the ground.
  • Majoritarian electoral systems of democracy will harden these divisions in India, as they are in the United States.
  • Therefore, stronger processes are urgently required for democratic discourses amongst citizens themselves to bind the national fabric before it frays further.
  • The media, which used to provide space for diverse perspectives to be heard, is divided along partisan lines.
  • And social media, touted as a saviour of democracy by enabling citizens to freely listen to many points of view, has turned out to be a hardener of divisions.
  • Smart algorithms have created echo chambers of people who like each other, and who do not listen to those in other chambers, and lob hate bombs at each other across the walls.
  • There is little room for thoughtful, non-partisan deliberations among citizens.
  • Citizens’ meetings, online or offline, must be properly designed and professionally facilitated to enable all points-of-view to be listened to for new insights to emerge.
  • Yoga teaches us that learning to breathe well can tone up all the complex systems of the body and mind.
  • Diversity in the composition of the participants is essential for ensuring that complex issues are fully understood and new insights can emerge.
  • The time has come to learn to listen well, not just speak well; and to conduct dialogues, not debates.
  • The assemblies Emperors Ashoka and Akbar conducted centuries ago in India provide some role models.
  • The soft power of India, the world’s most richly diverse nation perhaps, will increase when it returns from the presently darkening elected authoritarianism to lead in the evolution of institutions for citizens’ participation in democratic governance.

How holistic education can infuse positivity in school system | IE

  • Out of the 293 transformative paragraphs of the National Education Policy 2020, about 180 are dedicated to school education.
  • Provisions of 86 of those paragraphs figure in the revamped Samagra Shiksha 2.0 scheme that was approved by the Union government on August 4.
  • Recently, a video of a six-year-old girl making a strong case for reducing the burden of studies went viral.
  • This monologue was an appeal to usher in joyful education in our schools.
  • Samagra Shiksha or holistic education is essentially joyful education: It encompasses the physical, social, emotional, and mental well-being of the child alongside academic and skill development in an integrated format.
  • Version 2.0 of the scheme focuses on
  • Access and retention
  • Strengthening foundations
  • Equity and inclusion
  • Quality and standards
  • Holistic curriculum and pedagogy
  • Assessment reforms
  • Capacity building and stakeholder participation
  • Technology integration
  • There are over 25 crore children in the 6-18 age group.
  • The first thing they require is affordable access to quality education.
  • The scheme has been funding basic school infrastructure, textbooks, uniforms and admissions to private schools under RTE Act since its inception.
  • But for the first time, pre-school infrastructure and workshop/laboratory cum classroom for vocational education shall also be funded in the 2.0 scheme.
  • For retention after class 8 and 10, the scheme will provide transport for students to attend formal school.
  • It aims to attract 16 to 19 year-old out-of-school children through the Open School system.
  • From the pre-school stage itself, it is crucial to focus on learning to read, write, communicate and do basic math operations.
  • The NIPUN Bharat Mission for foundational literacy and numeracy is a first-time component under the new Samagra Shiksha.
  • Play and toy-based teaching-learning material and pedagogy will be the cornerstone of building this foundation.
  • Gender-related interventions have been strengthened by giving additional funds for extending Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas to grade 12, and provisioning of sanitary pad vending machines and incinerators in all girls’ hostels.
  • The self-defence training component is now extended from grades 6 to 12.
  • Disabled girls from pre-school to grade 12 will now get a separate amount as a stipend and separate funding for aids and appliances, etc.
  • There are 21 disabilities identified under the PwD Act of 2016, many of which are difficult to identify in a classroom setting.
  • The revamped Samagra Shiksha for the first time provides for block-level camps for identification and training of special educators and equipping Block Resource Centres and home-based schooling for severe and profound disabilities.
  • Aside from DIKSHA, ICT Labs, other digital initiatives, science labs, engaging teaching-learning material, curricular and pedagogical reforms, and tinkering labs,, the inclusion of a holistic progress card, topic circles, bagless days, criterion-referenced item banks, and school complexes for efficient schooling, heralds a shift towards competency-based education.
  • For every school that gets at least two medals in Khelo India at the national level, a grant of Rs 25,000 awaits.
  • Capacity building will now focus not just on in-service teacher training but also on building capacities of stakeholders — school management committee members, parents, PTA, etc.
  • Institutional strengthening of State Councils for Educational Research and Training (SCERT), District Institutions for Educational Training, Block and Cluster Resource Centres are expected to re-invigorate the teaching community.
  • A special assessment cell is being set up in each SCERT to take assessment reforms forward in all states/UTs.
  • The earlier system of funding subject streams has been done away with, and any combination of subjects will now be funded.
  • Infusing joy at every stage and in every aspect of school education in a holistic manner, with the complete support and participation of all stakeholders is the way forward not only for inducing positivity in the system, but also for bringing synchronicity in the experience of both teachers and learners.

NEWS

  • India tells Taliban, Afghanistan’s soil should not be used for anti-India activities & terrorism in any manner
  • US President Joe Biden says Washington will continue its fight against terrorism in Afghanistan & other countries
  • PM Modi and European Council President discuss recent developments in Afghanistan & their implications for region and World
  • More than 1 crore 9 lakh doses of COVID vaccine administered in single day; Vaccination coverage crosses 65 crore mark
  • Himachal Pradesh becomes first state to administer first dose of Corona vaccine to 100 percent of its eligible population
  • PM Modi to release commemorative coin on ISKCON founder Swami Prabhupada today

ANS

Q.) India is expecting to conclude the Reciprocal Exchange of Logistical Agreement (RELOS) with which country, whose Defence Minister visitis India later this year?

  1. Poland
  2. Russia
  3. USA
  4. Belarus

Q.) President Biden described ________ as “a life-threatening storm.”

  1. Katrina
  2. Ida
  3. Great Bhola
  4. Hoogly