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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 01 October 2020

No One Felled It? | ToI

  • 28 years - wheels of justice to turn
  • CBI filed its first chargesheet in 1993 - supplementary chargesheet in 1996
  • The case drifted between trial courts - Allahabad high court - Supreme Court
  • CBI’s prosecution - fell flat
  • The Justice Liberhan Commission report had rejected the claim of a spontaneous riot.
  • The trial court found no evidence of conspiracy while acquitting LK Advani, Murli Manohar Joshi, Uma Bharti and other leaders of the Ram Mandir agitation
  • The judicial process is still not over: Appeals before Allahabad HC and later SC could happen.
  • India’s track record of prosecuting communal riots is abysmal
  • Rarely are riot leaders brought to justice.
  • Failure to uncover the “serious violation” of 1992 will remain a black day for Indian democracy.

The demolition | IndExp

  • There was no demolition plan, nor any demolition men and women, just an on-the-spur outburst by unknown “anti-social elements.”   That’s the essence of the verdict by the special court in Lucknow
  • All the surviving 32 accused – acquitted
  • The razing of the masjid, was a public event.
  • It was followed by communal riots
  • The BJP-VHP whipped up visible mobilisations, LK Advani’s rath yatras happened in full public view, and from Ayodhya on D Day, there were eyewitness accounts, photos and videos of the bringing down of the masjid amid exhortations of “ek dhakka aur do…”.
  • November 2019 - Supreme Court  - had called the demolition an “egregious violation of the rule of law”.
  • The court shifts the entire blame to the faceless kar sevak.
  • There is only one way forward: The CBI must appeal against the verdict so that the justice process can run its full course.
  • Is it a moment of shame for a constitutional democracy?
  • Will the majority and the mob have the right of way?
  • This is a question that the investigative machinery and the judiciary still need to answer in the demolition case, within the ambit of the Constitution.
  • How this question is addressed — and answered — will define a democracy’s commitment to due process.

On the Quad, define the idea, chart a path

  • 2nd Ministerial meeting of the Quad will be held in Japan
  • 2007 - Shinzo Abe - global financial crisis - America ‘unipolar moment’
  • Japan and Australia were riding the China Boom to prosperity.
  • China on Quad: Asian version of NATO

  • China was hoping that its naval build-up might slip under the radar.
  • China thought that America was distracted by continental challenges including Russia, Afghanistan and Iran, and would not look sea-ward.
  • Nine Dash Line
  • First overseas base in Djibouti
  • China’s dismissal of the Arbitral Award in the dispute with the Philippines on the South China Sea
  • The Quad nations need to better explain that the Indo-Pacific Vision is an overarching framework that is being discussed in a transparent manner, with the objective of advancing everyone’s economic and security interests.
  • The Quad, on the other hand, is a plurilateral mechanism between countries that share interest on specific matters.
  • In 2016, China itself established a Quadrilateral Cooperation and Coordination Mechanism with Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan and, more recently earlier this year, another one with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. The Quad is no exception.
  • The global pandemic and the faltering global economy are taking a toll on the region’s growth and prosperity.
  • Public opinion about China in all four countries is different from what it used to be in 2007.
  • The fact of the meeting itself will signal to China that assertive or aggressive behaviour is not going to derail this mechanism.
  • The forthcoming Ministerial meeting will be an opportunity to define the idea and chart a future path.
  • In a recent address to the U.S.-India Strategic Partnership Forum (USISPF) on August 31, the U.S. Deputy Secretary of State, Stephen Biegun, spoke about making sure that all the countries were moving at the same speed.
  • He also suggested that other countries might be invited to join in the future.
  • A positive agenda built around collective action in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief, monitoring shipping for search and rescue or anti-piracy operations, infrastructure assistance to climatically vulnerable states, connectivity initiatives and similar activities, will re-assure the littoral States that the Quad will be a factor for regional benefit, and a far cry from Chinese allegations that it is some sort of a military alliance.

The challenge of changing health behaviour

  • The role of health behaviour (our diet, physical activity, sleep, smoking, substance use, and so on) in public health practice needs special attention during an epidemic.
  • The real skill of public health professionals during an epidemic is to identify those social groups which can be at greater risk to disease at any given point of time.
  • To know whether any group is at risk or not is possible only if we have a deep understanding of the society and its people and their livelihood-related behaviour of which health behaviour forms a part.
  • Laboratory tests only categorise the population as ‘positive’ and ‘negative’.
  • These can be matched with those with risky health behaviour and non-risky health behaviour.
  • These categories are further linked to their livelihood characteristics and are crucial for effective public health action.
  • The primary purpose of public health action during an epidemic is to prevent the spread of a disease in the community.
  • The overreliance on laboratory tests not only means that we lose the opportunity to detect those who are possibly at high risk of transmission but also the opportunity to look for high risk behaviour among people.
  • The third important aspect is the role of health awareness in health behaviour.
  • Many who are at risk find it difficult to modify their health behaviour despite being aware that they are at risk.
  • People are aware that taking precautions like wearing masks, hand washing and maintaining physical distancing can prevent transmission of the disease.
  • Yet we hear of politicians, celebrities, healthcare workers and those travelling in public transport testing positive for COVID-19.
  • It is important to examine ways by which States/ governments intervene to ensure that people follow a certain health behaviour.
  • Most States invoked the Epidemic Diseases Act of 1897 and some gave the police the responsibility to ensure that people follow certain health behaviour.
  • The role of public health in this case gets largely confined to ‘preaching’ with very little scope for action.
  • The second approach has been to create fear of punishment as the basis of behavioural change.
  • What history teaches us is that those health behavioural practices that are ‘natural’ and linked to living and working conditions are more acceptable and sustainable and are followed by people voluntarily.
  • The task of public health professionals is to understand those health behavioural practices and the relationship of those practices with social structures and institutions.
  • Health behaviour plays a critical role in deciding the success of any public health intervention.
  • The real change in health behaviour is possible only when there is acknowledgement of its societal roots and there are efforts to alter it at multiple levels.
  • The gangrape and maiming of a 19-year-old woman from the Dalit community in Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, ended on Tuesday night with her death, and a hasty, lonely cremation in the dead of the night.
  • It was a crime that stands out for being enabled by many inequalities and injustices.
  • It is one more example of the epidemic of sexual violence that regularly crushes Indian women and girls.
  • UP police officials stand accused of cremating the woman, without allowing a last glimpse to the grieving parents and without their consent.
  • To be able to inflict so much cruelty takes insensitivity, of course, but it is also a function of a reflex, honed over years, to bend to entrenched systems of power.
  • Extra-judicial killings are projected and celebrated as justice, despite reprimands from the Supreme Court — and no police officer is held accountable.
  • As an investigation in Indian Express paper has shown, the National Security Act (NSA) is used recklessly in cases of cow slaughter — often a dog whistle in heartland politics against the minorities — and also to book those protesting against the Citizenship Amendment Act.
  • The crackdown against protestors during the anti-CAA protests, their naming and shaming through posters in public places, were all giveaways of a police force ready to use a heavy hand to serve a partisan agenda.
  • But lawkeepers, unless held accountable to law, remain a weapon in the hands of the powerful.
  • The Hathras incident underlines that the all-powerful UP policeman, impatient with the checks of procedure and law, stands against the vulnerable and powerless.
  • The UP police has often justified its excesses in the name of maintaining law and order; it must ask itself what law was protected by violating the sanctity of a 19-year-old girl’s last rites.

NEWS

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