Need for internal reforms to suit the 21st century
Structure of the 15-member Security Council
UNSC’s five permanent members’ veto powers
G4 countries - Brazil, Germany, India and Japan
Unilateraldeclaration of war by USA & UK
India’s election in June as a non-permanent member of the UNSC, obtaining 184 votes
The General Assembly’s 122nd plenary meeting in 2008 decided to facilitate the reform process through the Inter-Governmental Negotiations framework (IGN) on equitable representation as well as expansion of the UNSC.
Though the General Assembly’s adoption of a 2015 resolution to allow the IGN on the basis of a framework document generated some enthusiasm, it was dampened by the U.S., Russia and China being opposed to serious reform of the Council.
The UN remains unreflective of the current trajectory, especially in the strategic and economic arenas.
Reject this inequitable climate proposal
The UN SecretaryGeneral _____________ call for India to give up coalimmediately and reduceemissionsby45% by 2030.
De-industrialise the country and abandon the population to a permanent low-development trap.
Make no new investment in coal after 2020
Foundational principles of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
China and India - reduce their emissions by 45% by 2030
UN Secretary General is quite aware that India, by any yardstick of reckoning, is punching at least on a par, if not above, its weight in responsibility and economic capacity in climate action.
India’s track record –
Renewable energy programme is ambitious
Energy efficiency programme is delivering
At least 2° Celsius warming compliant climate action
On track to fulfilling their Paris Agreement commitments
India’s annual emissions, at 0.5 tonnes per capita, are well below the global average of 1.3 tonnes
Cumulative emissions: India’s contribution by 2017 was only 4% for a population of 1.3 billion, whereas the European Union, with a population of only 448 million, was responsible for 20%.
UNFCCC - 1990and2017 - developed nations (excluding Russia and east Europe) have reduced their annual emissions by only 1.3%.
First World strategy - pressure the developing countries to bear the brunt of climate mitigation
Multilateral or First World financial and development institutions – are forcingtheiragenda on to developing countries.
UN Secretary General risks unravelling even the Paris Accord
Manufacturing growth powered by fossilfuel-basedenergy is itself a necessity.
Lacking production capacity in renewable energy technologies.
Need for caution
The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), which is piloting the Sputnik V vaccine, has announced a partnership with the Hyderabad-basedDr. Reddy’s Laboratories to conduct a Phase-3 trial, or large multi-location human trials here.
RDIF would supply 100 million doses through its partnership with Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories.
Sputnik V is being developed as a two-dosevaccine on a human adenovirus vaccine platform.
Results of the Phase-1 and Phase-2 trials - The Lancet - proven safe and efficacious enough to progress to the next stage of trials.
Controversially, Sputnik V has been granted a pre-approval by Russia’s regulators even before Phase-3trials have been completed.
Immense political pressure on regulatory agencies
Good practices and necessary protocols
The Serum Institute has committed to producing 100 million doses of its vaccine for India and other ‘Low and Middle Income Countries’ at less than$3 per dose.
All in all, there seems to be a guarantee for only about 150 million doses for India.
India has the capabilities for vaccine manufacture, cold chain storage and distribution to ensure access to citizens — and the world — in reasonable time.
But INDIAmust not forget that vaccines must go through their inevitably long gestation to ensure that only those that are safe and efficacious make their way to the market.
For the welfare of animals
For a country that claims adherence to ahimsa, India’s treatment of its animals betrays a moral failure.
Over the past year alone, there have been reports of animals being subjected to sexual abuse, acid attacks, being thrown off rooftops, and being burnt alive.
A major factor that enables such violence is an ineptlegal framework.
The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960 punishes the most serious forms of animal violence with a paltry fine of ₹50.
Section 11 lists a series of offences, which vary from abandoning an animal to kicking it, mutilating it or killing it, and prescribes the same punishment for all these offences.
Severe offences are treated on a par with less severe ones.
This is a clear departure from established principlesofpenology.
At present, a majority of the offences under the Act are non-cognisable, which means the police cannot investigate the offence or arrest the accused without the permission of a Magistrate.
Though Section 11 criminalises several forms of animal cruelty, sub-section (3) carves out exceptions for animal husbandry procedures such as dehorning, castration, nose-roping, and branding.
These procedures cause tremendous physical and psychological pain to animals.
The law does not provide any guidelines for these procedures.
In the absence of a clear statutory definition, we are leaving crucial questions of animal welfare to the subjective moral compass of judges.
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