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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 17 June 2021

NEWS

  • PM Modi says India is home to one of the world's largest start up ecosystems
  • Union Cabinet approves subsidy hike for fertilizers; Also approves corporatisation of Ordnance Factory Board
  • Net Direct Tax collection during current fiscal doubles to Rs 1.86 lakh crore
  • Over 26 crore 53 lakh Covid vaccine doses administered in the country so far
  • Union Minister Nitin Gadkari says bio-fuels and low cost battery technology will transform transport sector in India
  • National COVID-19 Recovery rate improves to 95.80 per cent; 62,000 daily new COVID-19 cases recorded nationwide
  • International Day of Yoga to be observed worldwide on June 21
  • MoU signed for development of National Maritime Heritage Complex at Lothal in Gujarat
  • PM Modi to launch Customized Crash Course Programme for COVID-19 Frontline Workers on Friday
  • ICMR says, symptomatic cases were significantly higher in pregnant women during 2nd wave than 1st wave of COVID-19
  • US, Russia agree to resume arms control talks and to return ambassadors to each other's capitals
  • Bangladesh to set up international vaccine institute- Prime Minister Hasina

FINANCIAL NEWS

  • G7 Proposal on MNC Tax
  • Earlier this month, the G7 countries endorsed a proposal to impose a minimum tax on MNCs and digital enterprises, which have usually paid low taxes or avoided taxes altogether by shifting profits to low tax jurisdictions.
  • The G7 proposal envisages running a pilot with 100 MNCs as against about 2,000 that were identified by the OECD.
  • A wider application would ensure India does not lose tax under the new regime.
  • This implies that large MNCs with at least a 10% profit margin will need to pay tax in countries where they have a presence and not where they are based.
  • It also proposes a global minimum tax rate of at least 15% on a country-by-country basis, which takes care of the distortions caused by low-tax jurisdictions.
  • Under the current proposal, India’s revenue would be much less than it gets from the equalization levy.

Judgment on all of us

  • Bail, not jail, is the default rule for undertrials and such orders ought to be routine.
  • Yet the judgments of the Delhi high court granting bail to Natasha Narwal, Devangana Kalita and Asif Iqbal Tanha, who are accused in a conspiracy related to the riots in northeast Delhi last year, are seminal.
  • The extraordinarily wide definition of the term ‘terrorist act’ under the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act (UAPA) has been seemingly perceived by policemen across the country as an invitation to pass off ordinary crimes as terror offences.
  • The worst the trio could be accused of is being part of a WhatsApp group that organised protests against CAA that later turned violent.
  • Being part of a WhatsApp group, no matter how incendiary its contents, is ordinarily not a crime, let alone instilling large-scale fear in society.
  • Any self-respecting police force in the country ought to read the judgment carefully.
  • The judges were perceptive in noting that with the second wave of the pandemic and the slow functioning of judicial institutions, their trial is likely to be further delayed.
  • The process of waiting in jail for the trial to begin cannot become their punishment, especially as they were neither flight risks nor habitual offenders.
  • The judgment has widely been hailed as a flag-bearer of democracy.
  • This praise is well-deserved.
  • But it would be myopic to celebrate it without introspecting how we got to a place where routine bail orders are now causes for celebration.
  • Lawyers take such chances because courts themselves have been inconsistent in the past.
  • In this case itself, the lower court had earlier denied bail on specious grounds; in the case of Safoora Zargar, a pregnant MPhil student jailed for making a speech against CAA, the judge initially denied bail saying that she was playing with the embers and couldn’t blame the wind for starting a fire.
  • Even in cases which have no national security implications, like the arrest of comedian Munnawar Faruqui, courts have often plainly ignored the law and denied bail.
  • The provisions in the UAPA under which bail is next to impossible have been on the statute book since 2008.
  • They joined a long list of similar provisions in anti-terror acts, both central and state, chipping away at the presumption of innocence and the fundamental rights of free speech and assembly.
  • Barring some exceptions, judges have routinely upheld the legal validity of these draconian laws.
  • The Delhi HC judgment is an invitation for us to find our higher selves – for lawyers to give advice without fear or favour, for policemen to follow the rulebook, for governments to disagree with its dissidents without imprisoning them, and for citizens to not remain indifferent to injustice meted out to others.

Closure, compensation |

  • Nine years after two Italian marines shot dead two fishermen off the Kerala coast under the belief that they were pirates, the criminal proceedings against them are set to be formally closed.
  • The Supreme Court of India has ordered that the criminal trial against them be stopped, after Italy deposited compensation of ₹10 crore.
  • The Permanent Court of Arbitration, a tribunal under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, had last year ruled that even though India and Italy had concurrent jurisdiction to try the case, the marines — Salvatore Girone and Massimiliano Latorre — enjoyed immunity from Indian jurisdiction as they were acting on behalf of a state.
  • The UN tribunal had also ruled that the Indian fishing boat, St. Antony, and the victims were entitled to compensation, as Enrica Lexie, the Italian vessel, had violated the boat’s right of navigation under the Law of the Sea.
  • The legal heirs of the two victims are likely to get ₹4 crore each, and the owner of the fishing vessel, ₹2 crore.
  • A possible way out was to have agreed to Italy’s offer of compensation and a trial in its own jurisdiction — the very thing that came out of the UN tribunal’s ruling
  • A lesson is that such incidents should be dealt with a combination of legally sustainable steps and diplomatic efforts to find early resolution.
  • More frequent and intense heat waves are expected with a rise in global temperatures due to climate change.
  • In the last three decades, there have been 660 heat waves across India causing 12,273 deaths.
  • India, with currently low penetration levels of air conditioners (ACs), will likely require substantial cooling services to keep citizens healthy and productive.
  • The India Cooling Action Plan projects the number of room air conditioners to become about four times in the next 10 years, and about 10 times in the next 20 years, making India the world’s largest energy user for cooling.
  • Indian homes will be an important site where this conundrum between cooling needs and potential emissions will play out.
  • In Delhi’s wealthy neighbourhoods, 43% of the households own an AC, 39% own coolers and 18% only have a fan.
  • The way households use ACs also differs quite a bit.
  • People prefer different AC set-point temperatures, again indicative of varying perceptions of thermal comfort.
  • Unfortunately, energy efficiency does not feature as a priority in the purchase of cooling appliances.
  • Large-scale adoption of efficient cooling appliances will be essential to providing the required thermal comfort in a low carbon manner.
  • Awareness campaigns on the benefits of energy efficiency along with subsidies and financial incentives that help with the higher upfront costs can help drive up the adoption of more efficient technologies.
  • Encouraging the use of passive cooling alternatives including energy efficient building designs can help provide the desired thermal comfort with reduced dependence on energy intensive cooling technologies.

An underrated ecological crisis

  • PM Modi: the world needs to come together to combat land degradation as a “collective responsbility” as it threatens the foundation of societies, economies, food security, health, safety, and quality of life.
  • The UN defines land degradation as “the temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of land”.
  • Estimate: 1/5th of earth’s land area is degraded
  • More than 3.2 billion people worldwide are at risk from the effects of land degradation, many of whom live in the world’s poorest regions.
  • The loss of land productivity contributes to the climate crisis.
  • The pace of desertification has accelerated 30 to 35 times the historical rate in recent decades.
  • ISRO: 30% of the country’s total area, faces degradation.
  • TERI: Land degradation costs $48.8 billion annunally to the exchequer.
  • India to restore 26 million hectares of degraded land by 2030.
  • We need to revive our watershed management programme, which includes
  • Afforestation
  • Conserving Soil & Water To Check Erision
  • Improve Soil Moisture
  • Increase Recharge
  • States have to be strict about land-use change policies, focus on sutainable agricultural practices, and involve communities in the greening process.
  • India is staring at a massive ecological and livelihood crisis.

Q.) An emerging mutant from the Delta variant called ______ that allows the coronavirus to “escape” antibodies, is an international Variant of Concern (VOC), marked by being highly infectious and significiantly able to reduce the potency of vaccines.

  1. AY1 or B.1.617.2.1
  2. AY2 or B.1.617.2.1
  3. AY1 or B.1.617.2.2
  4. AY3 or B.1.617.2.2

Q.) Which State has announced a compensation of Rs 1 lakh to below poverty line families that have lost adult member to Covid-19?

  1. Kerala
  2. Tamil Nadu
  3. Karnataka
  4. Andhra Pradesh