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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 16 August 2021

Envisioning India At 100 | ET

  • The prime minister’s rousing call on the 75th anniversary of India’s Independence for all Indians to join in a collective effort over the next 25 years — a period he referred to as Amrit Kaal, the Auspicious Phase — to attain an advanced degree of multifaceted development that is inclusive is unexceptionable.
  • Energy independence
  • Inclusion in terms of reaching every section of society
  • Erasing the urban-rural divide and the gender divide
  • Integrated, high-speed transport infrastructure
  • Startup culture spreading to tier 2 and tier 3 towns
  • Women’s self-help groups and cooperatives and concrete proof of ownership that allows land to be converted into productive finance and capital, together, would channel rural energies into new entrepreneurship and production.
  • The government would help, removing laws and rules that hinder.
  • Marginal farmer, with a landholding smaller than two hectares
  • The way to raise farm productivity is not only to use better technology and more capital on the farm but also to shift labour out of agriculture, and train and deploy it in other sectors.
  • Horrors of Partition

Memories | TH

  • August 14 as “Partition Horrors Remembrance Day
  • With about two million killed in the most brutal ways, an estimated 1,00,000 women kidnapped and raped, and more than 15 million men, women and children displaced, Partition, the British Raj’s parting shot to India, left an indelible mark in hearts and memories across the subcontinent.
  • India lost its territory and its people
  • Other developments have also helped heal the wounds of Partition, not the least, India’s successes over the past three-quarters of a century, including a growing economy, its technological prowess, and as a respected voice on the global stage.
  • There is no question that a nation cannot know itself without knowing its past, and that the horrors of Partition must be acknowledged, archived, mourned and commemorated.
  • The concern over the naming of the day at this point, however, is that it forces the nation to look back on this traumatic time rather than looking ahead.
  • Given that the trauma was felt not just in India but in three countries, an attempt to mark the day across the subcontinent might have been more inclusive.
  • It is necessary too, to remember not just the violence of 1947 but also the colonial hand that wrought Partition, hold the British Empire to account, and educate successive generations on the perils of imperialism, arbitrary map-making and sowing religious divides in order to rule.
  • The Prime Minister’s reasoning, that the nation must be reminded of the “need to remove the poison of social divisions, disharmony and further strengthen the spirit of oneness, social harmony and human empowerment”, is welcome, but this is an effort to be practised every day, not just one day in the year.
  • The Bombay high court has stayed part of the new, sweeping IT rules that aimed to control the news media along with social media and OTT platforms.
  • The court flagged the threat to free expression and the fact that as rules, they are subordinate legislation that go beyond the remit of the IT Act itself.
  • Digital news and current affairs publishers had challenged these rules citing the right to equality, free expression and the right to profession, and these petitions are pending in various courts.
  • The HC has now held back the implementation of two controversial rules.
  • Rule 9 (1) said that digital media publishers must adhere to the code of ethics, and offered subjective notions of ‘half-truths’, ‘decency’ and ‘good taste’.
  • This also took the rules far beyond Section 66A of the IT Act, which was earlier struck down by the Supreme Court for its vagueness and overreach.
  • Rule 9 (3) aimed to set up a three-tier grievance redressal committee that would ultimately empower governments to minutely regulate all media content.
  • Publishers rightly fear that the rules allow governments to take unilateral action against any platform and ensure that others fall in line.
  • The court’s emphasis on media independence and the value of free speech and dissent are sorely needed and entirely welcome.
  • The reason to resist these rules is that the media, and indeed the courts, are foundational to a liberal democracy.
  • Plus, as  we have pointed out, unlike social media platforms, news is already regulated by the Press Council, the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act and the National Broadcasting Standards Authority.
  • While India lacks a First Amendment-type shield for press freedom, the courts have consistently protected media rights with their interpretation of Article 19(a) as part of the fundamental right to free speech and expression.

Good news on news | ToI

  • The Bombay HC has partly checked the IT rules for now, but the principle must be clearly affirmed in the future.
  • Attempts to dilute the news media’s independence are a threat to democracy.

An oath in whose name? | TH

  • Some Cabinet Ministers in Karnataka who took oath recently stood out from the rest.
  • Prabhu Chauhan took the oath in the name of Gaumata and ‘Seva Lal’.
  • Murugesh Nirani took oath in the name of God and farmers.
  • Anand Singh took oath in the name of Vijayanagara Virupaksha and Bhuvaneshwari.
  • All these oaths run against the spirit of the Constitution.
  • During the Constituent Assembly debate on October 17, 1949, the last item to be debated was the Preamble.
  • B.R. Ambedkar proposed the Preamble, “We, the people of India…”. H.V. Kamath moved an amendment to the Preamble, “In the name of God, we, the people of India…”.
  • To this proposal, another member, A. Thanu Pillai, said, “If Mr. Kamath’s amendment is accepted... would not that amount to compulsion in the matter of faith?... It affects the fundamental right of freedom of faith. A man has a right to believe in God or not, according to the Constitution... This amendment should be ruled out...”.
  • Another member, Rohini Kumar Chaudhuri, said, “What does Bande Mataram mean? It means an invocation to a Goddess... We who belong to the Sakthi cult protest against invoking the name of God alone, completely ignoring the Goddess... May I move an amendment to that of Shri Kamath that instead of ‘in the name of God’, would he be pleased to accept ‘in the name of Goddess’?”
  • H.N. Kunzru opposed Kamath’s amendment stating, “I do not see why in a matter that vitally concerns every man individually, the collective view should be forced on anybody. Such a course of action is inconsistent with the Preamble which promises liberty to thought, expression, belief, faith and worship to everyone... We invoke the name of God, but I make bold to say that while we do so, we are showing a narrow, sectarian spirit, which is contrary to the spirit of the Constitution...”.
  • In the end, the President of the Assembly put Kamath’s amendment to vote. The amendment was defeated, thereby excluding ‘God’ from the Preamble. Thus, our founding fathers gave us an agnostic Constitution.
  • Constitutional oaths should be secular.
  • The case pertained to an MLA, Umesh Challiyil, whose oath had been declared void by the Kerala High Court.
  • Mr. Challiyil challenged the High Court order. While taking up the matter, the Supreme Court said that the oath of an elected representative should be in strict compliance with the wordings of the Constitution.
  • The allegiance of a person holding a constitutional post should only be to the Constitution.

Gear the Nation Up for Innovation | ET

  • Research and innovation are significant pillars for an Aatmanirbhar Bharat.
  • And, yet, India’s gross expenditure on R&D is a mere 0.65% of its GDP.
  • This is lower than the 1.5-3% spent by the top 10 economies.
  • Government intervention through favourable policies can stimulate homegrown innovation.
  • A self-driving car requires AI to enhance its ‘cleverness’.
  • But to make it effective on Indian roads, it needs to be ‘intelligent’ enough to understand the ‘nuances’ of Indian roads and driving.
  • India can become a game-changer in innovation with its ‘More for Lessinnovation model that leverages its strength in indigenous research, and talent ecosystem to ensure successful outcomes with minimum investments.
  • To thrive in these volatile times, we need to focus on innovative strategies to become a real differentiator.
  • Policies, like tax credits, can incentivise venture capitalists and bolster local R&D.
  • Promoting innovation networks between MSMEs, academia and large firms can enable better commercialisation of innovative goods and services.
  • There is much to be learnt from OECD economies where 60-70% of workers in most countries, and five new jobs, are created with every $1 million invested in public R&D.
  • While India has shown tremendous strength on the software exports front, a self-reliant India will also need a robust technology infrastructure.
  • Further, it is not just about manufacturing everything in India, but also about gaining a competitive and recovery advantage in areas of stress caused by any global disruption.
  • For this, we need to invest in deep tech and prioritise areas where technology could play a big part.
  • Driven by cutting-edge technologies, the jobs of the future require us to master new skills, which can help foster an innovation ecosystem.
  • Technology is now the horizontal across all verticals.
  • It is of paramount importance that young students are encouraged to learn niche technology skills, which include artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science, cloud computing, blockchain and analytics.
  • Learning platforms should support diverse languages and dialects to ensure inclusive learning and upskilling.
  • This can transform the lives of millions.
  • To foster an innovation ecosystem, it is important to bring together academic institutions and corporates in the technology sector.
  • This will enable students to engage with state-of-the-art labs in real-world business settings.
  • In the long run, nurturing an innovation ecosystem will help businesses to overcome unforeseen crises.
  • Enterprises today are promoting innovative measures for sustainability.
  • Stakeholders are becoming increasingly aligned towards organisations with green practices and sustainable technology innovation.
  • Additionally, a strong environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) proposition enables improvement of operational efficiency and greater cost reductions.
  • Innovation is the fuel that will enable us to thrive in a post-Covid world.
  • But we need to foster adequate policies to enhance skills, nurture creative ecosystems, and create networks for technology diffusion and cross-collaboration.
  • Nation celebrates 75th Independence Day with patriotic fervor
  • President confers Shaurya Chakra awards to gallant defence personnel
  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh calls upon Armed Forces to be prepared for any challenge that may come their way
  • More than 56.76 crore vaccine doses provided to States & UTs so far: govt

  • Afghan President Ashraf Ghani resigns & leaves country: Media reports
  • Indian Coast Guard hoists National flag at selected 100 islands across country
  • Air India flight carrying 129 passengers from Afghanistan lands in New Delhi
  • PM Modi thanks PMs of Australia, Bhutan, Nepal, Mauritius for their greetings on I-Day
  • Vice President M. Venkaiah Naidu greets people on eve of Parsi New Year, Navroz
  • Indian Embassy in Beijing celebrates 75th Independence Day

Q.) The population survey of which two animals will now be conducted as part of a common estimation protocol in India?

  • Tigers and Lions
  • Elephants and Lions
  • Tigers and Cheetahs
  • Elephants and Tigers

Q.) Which former Prime Minister of India coined the slogan Jai Jawan, Jai Kisan, to motivate the soldiers and farmers of the country?

  • Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Morarji Desai
  • Lal Bahadur Shashtri
  • Indira Gandhi