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The Hindu Analysis Free PDF Download

Date: 13 July 2021

NEWS

  • PM Modi to interact with Chief Ministers of Northeastern states today to review COVID-19 situation
  • Prime Minister to interact with Tokyo bound Indian athletes today evening
  • More than 38 crore 11 lakh four thousand Covid vaccines administered in country so far
  • Cumulative COVID-19 recoveries exceeds 3 crore mark; Recovery rate improves to 97.22 pct
  • Union Home Minister Amit Shah appeals youth to come forward for achieving target of 100 per cent vaccination
  • External Affairs Minister S. Jaishankar to begin two day visit to Tajikistan; to participate in SCO Foreign Ministers' meet
  • Reserve Bank introduces RBI Retail Direct facility to facilitate investment in Government Securities by individual investors
  • NEET UG 2021 to be held on 12 Sept, application process starts today
  • Nepal's Supreme Court reinstates Parliament; Orders Sher Bahadur Deuba to be appointed as new Prime Minister
  • 12 people killed, 26 others injured after minibus carrying illegal migrants crashes Turkey
  • EAM Dr S. Jaishankar speaks with Minister of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus Nikos Christodoulides on recent developments in Cyprus
  • Jordanian court sentences 2 former officials to 15 years in jail, over palace coup attempt
  • Thailand changes its vaccine policy to mix China's Sinovac with AstraZeneca vaccine in a bid to boost protection
  • Manpreet Singh, DSP of Punjab Police to lead Indian Hockey Team as captain in Tokyo Olympics
  • Italy crowned Euro Cup 2020 champions after shootout win over England
  • The complicity (अपराध में सहयोग, साँठ-गाँठ, मिली भगत) of anthropogenic (मानवजनित) intervention in the environment and its adverse consequences.
  • Research team analyzed global climate data from 1982-2015
  • The team also used artificial neural networks, a type of machine learning, to find patterns of extreme precipitation in weather records.
  • The findings are published in the July 2021 edition of Nature Communications.
  • Human activities such as greenhouse gas emissions, change of land use, and other polluting and climate-altering excesses have necessitated in-depth research into the role and extent of human involvement in triggering extreme climate precipitation events.
  • In 2014, a report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) also highlighted the human role in warming up of the atmosphere and oceans, changes in the global water cycles, and melting of snow and ice.
  • Global warming due to man-made reasons has also caused the outbreak of many wildfires around the world.
  • The yearly occurrence of the Amazon forest fire is an unfortunate example.
  • In 2020, the Amazon fires consumed 43,000 sq.km of forests which was an increase of 28 per cent over 2019.
  • In 2021, the Amazon forest fire spectre returned to haunt the environment as nearly 1,157 sq.km of verdant forests succumbed to the relentless fires within months.
  • The change of land use by the local population, encroachments by the lumber lobby, and ambivalent authorities who look the other way have resulted in the annual shrinking of the much-fabled Amazon rain forests.
  • In India, various parts of the country have been at the receiving end of unpredictable precipitation events that have turned extreme with no warning whatsoever.
  • The rapid change in the weather behaviour has made it difficult for the authorities to anticipate disasters and for the hapless population to be prepared.
  • The year 2020 is mostly known for the havoc created by the Coronavirus pandemic.
  • The Amphan cyclone in this period accounted for nearly four million displaced lives and caused 128 deaths.
  • The 2020 monsoon season with its abnormal rainfall and precipitation quotient caused 2000 deaths across the nation and resulted in a loss of $10 billion.
  • Hyderabad city had to endure 30 cm of rainfall in just 24 hours, bringing the civic infrastructure and medical facilities to its knees.
  • There is an urgent need to spread awareness on how environmentally degrading human activities contribute to increasing the unpredictability of the weather, in particular, and climate, in general.
  • The disparity is evident with extreme droughts in one part of the country and heavier than usual rainfall and precipitation in other parts of the nation.
  • As these weather anomalies increase each year, the ability of the government and the people to endure these extreme events is coming down.
  • The government must rein in greenhouse gas emissions, speed of deforestation, and change of land use to curb extreme precipitation events.
  • Since the government efforts will not get instant results, it is critical to start the initiatives as early as possible so that at least the next decade and eventually the next generation can thank us for taking the right measures in the nick of time.
  • Ashok Gulati and Ayushi Khurana (G&K hereafter) compile the many visible indicators of the growth and importance of the milk economy in their article (‘Let the market work‘, IE, July 5).
  • These include the quantum of production, rate of growth, share in GDP and their comparisons with those of other sectors or countries.
  • G&K’s concluding recommendation that “let the prices be determined by market forces” should be largely acceptable.
  • But whether “the private sector entering this sector in a big way” opens up “the gates of creativity and competition” depends on its drawing correct lessons from how “the co-operatives …[have done] a great job.”
  • This note is an effort at looking at some factors beneath the surface, to put in perspective the totality of dairy development and balance the impression created by the G&K article that this is largely due to market forces.
  • G&K appear surprised that co-operatives and organised private dairies handle only about 20 per cent of the milk production.
  • The reality is that in tier two towns and below, private vendors still control milk supply to households.
  • Plus, the bulk of the raw milk is used for producing sweets.
  • Even during the licence-permit raj, large private diaries existed and did quite well. Nestlé had a plant near Amritsar in Punjab with the collection of milk spread to several surrounding districts.
  • Glaxo (now a part of Hindustan Unilever) ran plants at Aligarh and Etah.
  • Hindustan Milkfoods (now a part of Hindustan Unilever) operated from Rajahmundry in Andhra Pradesh.
  • All these were dedicated to products such as Nestlé’s Baby Food, Complan and Horlicks, but they were large operations, with daily milk collection amounting to around 1,00,000 litres.
  • When this writer studied them in the 1980s and 1990s, he found their ground operations no different from those of the co-operatives.
  • Operation Flood wisely stayed away from these areas.
  • G&K have the found milk production growth rate between 2004 and 2014 to be exceeded by that between 2015 and 2021.
  • They attribute this to the capacity created by the new private sector dairies.
  • But most of the private dairies have followed the template set by the co-operatives.
  • While foodgrain production went up about three times from about 108 million tons in 1970-71 to 300 million tons in 2019-20, milk production increased by an astounding nine times in the same period from 21 million tons to over 200 million tons.
  • To understand how this came about, we need to go back 75 years to the start of dairy co-operatives.
  • In 1946, Tribhuvandas Patel, a Gandhian and a follower of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, led some Kheda district dairy farmers to strike against the Greater Bombay Milk Scheme (GBMS), which used to refuse to take their milk in the winter, because there was a surplus.
  • The farmers succeeded, with political backing, in getting GBMS to accept their milk year-round.
  • They quickly formed a co-operative, the Anand Milk Union Ltd (Amul) with 246 members and recruited a US-trained dairy engineer, Verghese Kurien, to be their manager.
  • Amul grew quickly and Kurien realised that strikes could only go thus far.
  • The solution to the natural periodicity of milk production lay in processing the excess milk in the flush (winter) season into milk powder and butter (milk fat).
  • These could be recombined in the lean season to ensure a year-round even supply of milk.
  • Kurien managed to get a UNICEF grant for a plant of economic size.
  • The Amul dairy was established in 1956. Kurien also realised that more money could be made by selling some milk fat as table butter and the recombined milk could be leaner.
  • New co-operative dairies had come up in neighbouring Mahesana and Banaskantha districts on the lines of Amul.
  • Kurien roped them in a similar plan of activities.
  • Voltas became the marketing agent for Amul butter.
  • The rest, as they say, is history.
  • So the first pillar of success is to tie together micro-level production, economic scale processing and large-scale marketing with a brand.
  • Meanwhile, something quite revolutionary was happening in dairying households.
  • Traditionally, women looked after the buffaloes and took the milk to the collecting station.
  • They also started receiving weekly payments for the milk delivered.
  • We can only imagine the impact this would have had seven decades ago.
  • This became the second pillar of the development of the milk economy.
  • But the most important effect was on the family decision-making.
  • Now that they had regular, dependable and often sizeable cash income supplementing their periodic and uncertain crop incomes, they could see dairying as an enterprise, and not a subsistence or default occupation.
  • The market power asymmetry was effectively countered by co-operatives, which were large enough to enjoy economies of scale through the use of technology.
  • Their concern moved from remunerative prices to their stability, value-addition and surplus generation for all.
  • Administrative interventions such as support prices or monopoly procurement are not required since farmers’ organisations can powerfully lobby to protect their interests.
  • That is the most important third pillar.
  • To attribute the development of the milk economy of India to market forces and the entry of private entities into the activity solely or mainly would be superficial.
  • It is these three major pillars that are responsible for the happy statistics G&K cite.

Stop messing around, or else... |FPJ

  • Last month, temperatures across the world spiked.
  • ‘Heat wave’ screamed the headlines.
  • In parts of northern India, temperatures will be almost seven degrees above normal.
  • In parts of the western world, people died, as temperatures soared.
  • Death Valley, California, recorded a new high of 54 degrees Celsius.
  • Global warming is real, as is climate change.
  • As the world gets hotter, it is going to impact every nation.
  • With changing weather patterns, parts of the grain-producing world are moving towards drought.
  • Hunger seems imminent, coupled with water shortage.
  • 1951 was seen by many as the start of a new era in the world.
  • The second world war was over.
  • There was relative peace in Europe. This was also the era of de-colonisation.
  • Former colonies in Asia and Africa overthrew their Imperial overlords to chart their own destiny.
  • The population of the world stood at 2.6 billion people. India’s population in 1951 stood at 361 million.
  • In the post-war era, with the growth in state-backed science, and public health – there were massive drops in death rates.
  • Simultaneously, green revolutions across the world ensured that those born would not starve to death.
  • Simultaneously, many countries adopted industrial livestock production – also known as factory farming.
  • In 2021, the problems we face are different.
  • In the 70 years since 1951, world population has increased just over 3 times, to 7.9 billion people.
  • 7.9 billion people of the world have to be fed, clothed, sheltered, and be allowed to access those tools and techniques that will enable them to meet their aspirations.
  • When we discuss climate change, it is impossible to discuss it without the impact of populations and their aspirations, on climate.
  • Our aspirations, our activities, our very existence gives rise to emissions that make the world warmer.
  • Everything that we do contributes to the increase in emissions.
  • We breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbon dioxide.
  • Also, when we consider the emissions produced by all our industrial activity, including the rearing of animals on an industrial scale, we are looking at an even further increase in the increase in greenhouse gases (GHGs).
  • Every polluting part of our infrastructure must be identified, studied, and replaced with more environmentally friendly options.
  • This will have the effect of reducing emissions in the medium run, while reviving economies in the short run at the same time.
  • The second is to look at how we feed the world.
  • With almost 80 per cent of the world identifying itself as omnivorous, the need for meat production is extremely high.
  • Most western economies are built on factory farming.
  • The Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) estimates that the total emissions from global livestock amounts to 14.3 per cent of all GHGs.
  • Of this, cattle reared for both milk and meat are responsible for 65 per cent of the livestock emissions.
  • The move away from livestock slaughter to lab-created meat will not just solve ethical and moral issues around killing animals, but also alleviate the environmental disaster that arises out of ‘factory farming’.
  • Science and technology will need to find solutions that create ‘clean’ variants of everything that we use today.

The power of scrutiny | TH

  • The Supreme Court of India’s verdict last week, upholding the authority of a committee of the Delhi Assembly to summon a senior official of Facebook, is an extremely nuanced recognition of the extent of powers of State Assemblies in matters regulated by an Act of Parliament.
  • FB argued before the Supreme Court that this was a case of overreach; and that Delhi’s law and order came under the central government.
  • This was also the position taken by the central government, which argued that the Delhi Assembly had no jurisdiction in this matter.
  • The Court, in upholding the summons, did not go merely by the legislative powers of a House.
  • It rightly said, “The Assembly does not only perform the function of legislating; there are many other aspects of governance which can form part of the essential functions of the Legislative Assembly and consequently the committee.”
  • The Court refused to buy the argument that social media intermediaries are “merely a platform for exchange of ideas without performing any significant role themselves”.
  • Misinformation on social media, the Court said, has had “a direct impact on vast areas of subject matter which ultimately affect the governance of States”.

Ans

Q,) Sikkim, the smallest State with less than 1% of India’s landmass, is home to ______ of all flowering plants found in the country, reveals a recent publication by the Botanical Survey of India.

  1. 43%
  2. 27%
  3. 5%
  4. 18%

Q.) The Kesaria Buddha stupa, regarded as the world’s largest Buddhist stupa, is in which State of India?

  1. Madhya Pradesh
  2. Jharkhand
  3. Bihar
  4. Andhra Pradesh