There are only gases like NOx, CO with no Particulate Matter in diesel Exhaust
Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates. Its composition may vary with the fuel type or rate of consumption, or speed of engine operation (e.g., idling or at speed or under load), and whether the engine is in an on-road vehicle, farm vehicle, locomotive, marine vessel, or stationary generator or other application.
Diesel exhaust is a Group 1 carcinogen, which causes lung cancer and has a positive association with bladder cancer. It contains several substances that are also listed individually as human carcinogens by the IARC.
Methods exist to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx ) and particulate matter (PM) in the exhaust.
Salyut, Almaz, Skylab and Mir are/were.
Weapon manufacturer companies
IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency was established in 1957 as an autonomous organization with headquarters at paris
It is not independent of UN and it reports to both United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) and to UN Security Council (UNSC).
(A) Only 1
(B) Only 2
Fifteenth (15th) Finance Commission (FCc) is constituted under article 280 of Constitution by President of India.
First FC was constituted under chairmanship of Shri K.C. Neogy on 6th April, 1952.
It was constituted in 2017, to give recommendations for tax devolution and other fiscal matter for five fiscal years, 1 April 2017- 31 March 2022 .
(A) 1 & 2
(B) 2 & 3
(C) 2 only
(D) 1 & 3
Ministry of Defence has approved Indian Navy’s proposal to acquire 10 Kamov-31 helicopters. Kamov Ka-31 It is a military helicopter manufactured by USA
The decision was taken at Defence Acquisition Council (DAC) meeting chaired by PM
(A) Only 1
(B) Only 2
Predicament Polavaram Project, is an under construction multipurpose irrigation project on the Godavari River in the West Godavari District and East Godavari District in Andhra Pradesh. The project has been accorded national project status by the Union Government of India and will be the last to be accorded the status
There are 909 entries of taxa (including species, genus, families, orders and classes) of animals, birds and plants in the various Schedules of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. The names of protected species of animals, birds and plants in the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 mentioned at Schedule 1 of Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 is available on the Ministry’s website –www.moef.nic.in.
Towards the protection of those species, the Governrment has established a country-wide protected area network (730 Protected Areas including 103 National Parks, 535 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 26 Community Reserves, and 66 Conservation Reserves in different bio-geographic regions), under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to conserve wild animals and their habitats of threatened flora and fauna. Other steps taken by the Government to ensure protection of these species are as under:
i. Legal protection has been provided to wild animals against hunting and commercial exploitation under the provisions of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
ii. Special programmes like ‘Project Tiger’ and ‘Project Elephant’ have been launched for conservation of these endangered species and their habitats.
iii. A specific component of “Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats’ is provided in the Centrally Sponsored Scheme of ‘Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats’ for focused conservation action on selected critically endangered species.
iv. Financial and technical assistance is provided to the State/ Union Territory (UT) Governments under the Centrally Sponsored Schemes for providing better protection to wildlife including endangered species and improvement of its habitat.
v. The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has been empowered under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to apprehend and prosecute wildlife offenders.
vi. The Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB) has been set up to ensure co-ordination among various officers and State Governments in connection with the enforcement of law for control of poaching and illegal trade in wildlife and its products. In this endeavour WCCB has undertaken a number of steps like Intelligence led enforcement, sensitization on smuggling wildlife articles to Border Guarding forces and Customs, Interagency coordination of enforcement, inclusion of wildlife smuggling in bilateral and multilateral discussion and spreading awareness and education campaigns for various stakeholders.
vii. Biological Diversity Act, 2002, was inter-alia enacted to ensure protection of threatened species and their habitats. Under the provisions of Section 38 of the National Biodiversity Act, 2002, the species which are on the verge of extinction or likely to become extinct in near future as threatened species, are notified. Ministry has already issued notifications for 16 states and 2 UTs to this effect.
viii. Botanical Survey of India has brought a number of endemic/threatened plants under cultivation in its Acharya Jagdish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden in Howrah, Botanic Garden of Indian Republic, Noida and other associated botanic gardens of its regional centres for their ex-situ conservation, thereby complementing the in-situ conservation of such species in protected areas established in different bio-geographical regions of the country.
Several species of turtles and snakes have been seized from different parts of the country. As per the available records of the WCCB based on the information received from the State Forest and Police departments, the year wise details of the number of cases detected on the seizure of turtle/tortoise and snake during the last three years and the current year are as under:
The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security alliance, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003. The original five nations, with the exclusion of Uzbekistan, were previously members of the Shanghai Five group, founded on 26 April 1996.
Since then, the organisation has expanded its membership to eight countries when India and Pakistan joined SCO as full members on 9 June 2017 at a summit in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Heads of State Council (HSC) is the supreme decisionmaking body in the SCO, it meets once a year and adopts decisions and guidelines on all important matters of the organisation. Military exercises are also regularly conducted among members to promote cooperation and coordination against terrorism and other external threats, and to maintain regional peace and stability. Criticisms of the SCO include that it is used by member states to shield each other from international criticism regarding human rights violations.
The SCO is widely regarded as the "alliance of the East", due to its growing centrality in Asia-Pacific, and has been the primary security pillar of the region.
It is the largest regional organisation in the world in terms of geographical coverage and population, covering three-fifths of the Eurasian continent and nearly half of the human population.
The new report paints “an ominous picture” of the health of ecosystems rapidly deteriorating, said Sir Robert Watson, Chair of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), which conducted the global assessment.
IPBES is often described as the equivalent of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change for biodiversity and does scientific assessments on the status of the non-human life that makes up the Earth’s life-support system.
Absence of any known procedure
Non observance of Natural Justice
Claim of Sexual harassment & victimization of complainant
Gross violation of Art 14 & 21
Check on arbitrary action on the part of public authorities