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Daily PIB Analysis For UPSC/IAS | Download PDF

Date: 30 March 2019

 

  • 11 of the total eighteen biosphere reserves in india are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme
  1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka 2000
  2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu 2001
  3. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal 2001
  4. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Uttarakhand 2004
  5. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve Meghalaya 2009
  6. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve Madhya Pradesh 2009
  7. Simlipal Biosphere Reserve Odisha 2009
  8. Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve Great Nicobar 2013
  9. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh 2012
  10. Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve Kerala and Tamil Nadu 2016
  11. Khangchendzonga National Park Sikkim 2018
  • Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. Each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are nominated by national governments and remain under the sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. Their status is internationally recognized.
  • Biosphere reserves are ‘Science for Sustainability support sites’ – special places for testing interdisciplinary approaches to understanding and managing changes and interactions between social and ecological systems, including conflict prevention and management of biodiversity.
  • Biosphere reserves have three interrelated zones that aim to fulfill three complementary and mutually reinforcing functions:
  1. The core area(s) comprises a strictly protected ecosystem that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
  2. The buffer zone surrounds or adjoins the core areas, and is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can reinforce scientific research, monitoring, training and education.
  3. The transition area is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is allowed, fostering economic and human development that is socioculturally and ecologically sustainable

 

  • Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
  • MAB combines the natural and social sciences, economics and education to improve human livelihoods and the equitable sharing of benefits, and to safeguard natural and managed ecosystems, thus promoting innovative approaches to economic development that are socially and culturally appropriate, and environmentally sustainable.
  • Its World Network of Biosphere Reserves currently counts 686 sites in 122 countries all over the world, including 20 transboundary sites.
  • By focusing on sites internationally recognized within the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, the MAB Programme strives to:
  • identify and assess the changes in the biosphere resulting from human and natural activities and the effects of these changes on humans and the environment, in particular in the context of climate change;
  • study and compare the dynamic interrelationships between natural/near-natural ecosystems and socio-economic processes, in particular in the context of accelerated loss of biological and cultural diversity with unexpected consequences that impact the ability of ecosystems to continue to provide services critical for human well-being;
  • ensure basic human welfare and a liveable environment in the context of rapid urbanization and energy consumption as drivers of environmental change;
  • promote the exchange and transfer of knowledge on environmental problems and solutions, and to foster environmental education for sustainable development.
  • UNESCO’s intergovernmental structure provides MAB with a framework to help national governments support the planning and implementation of research and training programmes with technical assistance and scientific advice.
  • Participating countries establish MAB National Committees that ensure maximum national participation in the international programme, defining and implementing each country’s activities. MAB currently operates through 158 National Committees established among the 195 Members States and nine Associate Members States of UNESCO.
  • The agenda of the MAB Programme is defined by its main governing body, the International Coordinating Council. The MAB Council consists of 34 member states elected by UNESCO’s General Conference. The council elects a chair and five vice-chairpersons from each of UNESCO’s geopolitical regions, one of which functions as a rapporteur. These constitute the MAB Bureau.
  • The MAB Secretariat is based at UNESCO’s Division of Ecological and Earth Sciences, at UNESCO's headquarter in Paris, and works closely with the different field offices around the world to coordinate the work of the MAB Programme at national and regional levels. Its staff members draw on expertise in many and varied disciplines. MAB is funded through the regular budget of UNESCO and mobilizes funds in-trust granted by Member States, bilateral and multilateral sources, and extra-budgetary funds provided by countries, the private sector and private institutions.
  • MAB-related activities are nationally financed. The programme can grant seed funding to assist countries in developing projects and/or to secure appropriate partnership contributions.
  • The latest World Congress of Biosphere Reserves took place in Lima, Peru, from 14 to 17 March 2016. This will be the 4th World Congress of Biosphere Reserves and it shall develop a new vision for the decade 2016–2025

 

Ilkal saree

  • Ilkal saree is a traditional form of saree which is a common feminine wear in India. Ilkal saree takes its name from the town of Ilkal in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka state, India.
  • Ilkal sarees are woven using cotton warp on the body and art silk warp for border and art silk warp for pallu portion of the saree. In some cases instead of art silk, pure silk is also used.
  • Ilkal saree has been accorded Geographical Indication (GI) tag. Its GI tag number is 43
  • Madhya Pradesh – Chanderi
  • Andhra Pradesh – Pochampalli
  • Odisha
  • The Jawara dance is a renowned folk dance of the central Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The people of Bundelkhand region particularly, perform this art form. It is also known as the Harvest Dance.
  • Uttar Pradesh – Raslila, Dadra. Goa – Tarangamel
  1. Himachal Pradesh – Tabo monastery
  2. Sikkim – Pemayangtse, Rumtek.
  3. Arunachal Pradesh – Bomdila monastery
  4. Karnataka – Namdroling Monastery

 

  • With efforts to reform a European Union tax law not bringing the desired results, France is going to introduce from January 1, 2019 a digital tax on technology giants such as Google, Facebook, Apple and Amazon,
  • The French government’s “GAFA” tax” is being introduced to combat attempts by the firms to avoid paying what is considered a “fair share” of taxes in the country, by taking advantage of European tax laws.
  • The new tax regime is expected to bring in an estimated 500 million euro ($570 million) to the country’s cofferes for 2019, according to French Finance Minister Bruno Le Maire, The Local Fr said in a report.
  • Major technology companies have come under the scrutiny of lawmakers in countries like France and Britain for allegedly routing profits through operations in countries with extremely low tax rates or other arrangements.

Ministry of Defence

  •  Development of Combat Management System for Indigenous Aircraft Carrier through Private Sector
  • The Combat Management System (CMS) for the Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) developed with M/s Tata Power Strategic Engineering Division (TPSED), in collaboration with Weapon and Electronics System Engineering Establishment (WESEE) and M/s MARS, Russia was handed over by Mr Sukaran Singh, CEO and MD, M/s Tata Advanced Systems Ltd. to Indian Navy/ Chief of Materiel, Vice Admiral GS Pabby, PVSM, AVSM, VSM on 28 Mar 19 at M/s TPSED, Bengaluru, on successful completion of all tests and trials. The event was attended by Rear Admiral Antony George, NM, VSM, ACNS (SR), Rear Admiral SK Nair, NM, ACOM (IT&S) and other senior officers from the Indian Navy, and M/s TPSED, including firm’s COO, Mr NeeleshTungar and CTO, Mr R. Muralidharan.
  • This is a major landmark on IN’s thrust towards GoI's policy of 'Make in India' to encourage indigenous development and promoting private industry participation. It also assumes great significance as it is the first CMS developed by a Private Industry for IN and is for India’s Indigenous Aircraft Carrier. Prior accepting, the system software and hardware were subjected to rigorous acceptance trials. The system successfully cleared all acceptance tests, endurance and full load trials.

 

 UN council passes resolution to combat terrorist financing

  • The UN Security Council has unanimously passed the first-ever resolution ordering members to enforce laws against terror financing.
  •  UNSC yesterday's resolution demands all states "ensure that their domestic laws and regulations establish serious criminal offenses" to collect funds or financial resources to terrorist groups or individual criminals.
  • It also calls on members to create financial intelligence units. Nations that fail to carry out the resolution would face U.N. sanctions. U.N. counter-terrorism chief Vladimir Voronkov said the resolution comes at a "critical time," adding terrorists have gotten their hands on cash through both illegal and legal channels.

Ministry of Defence

  •  Press Release: The Delhi Horse Show 2019
  • The Delhi Horse Show has been in existence since the early part of 20th century. Pre independence, it was the most important equestrian event which attracted all equine enthusiasts to descend to Delhi from all parts of the Country. After Independence, the tradition continued and it remained India’s premier Horse Show. It was discontinued for few years since 1979 and was revived in 1986 under the aegis of the President’s Estate Polo Club and now the show is conducted by the Army Polo & Riding Centre at the Army Equestrian Centre, New Delhi. The Delhi Horse Show is the largest, most prestigious and popular Horse Show in the Country. The Horse Show has been promoting the equestrian sport to the utmost level in the nation. This show will be having events ranging from the more serious Dressage and Show Jumping events for India’s top riders to fun gymkhana events for little tots and teenagers. The participants range from 03 years age to India’s top senior riders. The participation in the Horse Show has increased as the interest and following of the sport has increased in the country after the Indian Event Team’ won 2 Silver Medals at the recently concluded Asian Games at Jakarta.
  • Over 400 horses and 500 competitors will be participating in the Show. Competitors are grouped in four categories – senior, young rider, junior and children. Participating teams and contingents include those from the Army , paramilitary , police forces, riding clubs , institutes ,schools & colleges to compete and witness the events. The ten days Delhi Horse Show will culminate on 07 April 2019 . It will be conducted early in the morning and late in the evening.