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Daily PIB Analysis For UPSC/IAS | Download PDF

Date: 07 May 2019

Ministry of Commerce & Industry

  • India and U.S. Hold Bilateral Trade Meeting
  • India and the United States held the India-U.S. Bilateral Trade meeting in New Delhi today. Suresh Prabhu, Minister of Commerce & Industry and Civil Aviation, Government of India and Mr. Wilbur Ross, Secretary of Commerce, United States of America co-chaired the bilateral meeting.
  • Both the co-chairs, Suresh Prabhu and Mr. Wilbur Ross appreciated the strong, robust and growing bilateral ties between India and the U.S. across the entire spectrum of trade and commerce. Both sides expressed satisfaction over the progress during the year 2018, with bilateral trade in Goods and Services registering a growth of 12.6% from $ 126 billion in 2017 to $142 billion in 2018.
  • India appreciated the US Trade Winds Indo-Pacific Business Forum and Mission initiative 2019, being held at New Delhi. The forum will bring together distributors, representatives and partners and enable them to increase sales by taking part in business-to-business meetings from 8-10thMay, 2019, across India.
  • Both co-chairs also complimented the new bilateral private sector led Small Business Interaction initiative, the US - India SME Forum, held today in the forenoon in New Delhi. This is the first event of its kind and would pave the way for collaboration and partnership between the U.S. and Indian small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in the areas of manufacturing and services.
  • Both sides also discussed various outstanding trade issues. Both sides agreed to engage regularly at various levels to resolve outstanding trade issues by exploring suitable solutions, which are mutually beneficial and promote economic development and prosperity in both countries.
  • Both sides agreed to deepen economic cooperation and bilateral trade by ensuring greater cooperation amongst stakeholders, including Government, businesses and entrepreneurs.

MCQ 1

  • Recently India levies ___% safeguard duty on import of solar cells
  1. 10 %
  2. 20 %
  3. 30 %
  4. 25 %
  • With the aim of protecting the domestic solar industry, India imposed a safeguard duty on solar cell imports for a year till July 29, 2019. This imposes safeguard duty accounts to 25% on the imports of solar cells.
  • According to the notification, the safeguard duty will not be imposed on imports from developing countries, except China and Malaysia.
  • The federal trade ministry earlier this month recommended imposing a 25% duty on imports of solar cells and modules from China for one year to try to counter what it sees as a threat to domestic solar equipment manufacturing.

MCQ 2

  • Bank that’s has been awarded the best performing primary lending institution in Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS) for the EWS (Economically Weaker Section) and LIG (Low Income Group) category.
  1. SBI
  2. NABARD
  3. HDFC
  4. PNB
  • HDFC has been awarded the best performing primary lending institution in Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS) for the EWS (Economically Weaker Section) and LIG (Low Income Group) category.
  • The award was given by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. CLSS was introduced in June 2015 under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana ( PMAY) for home loans to customers from the EWS as well as LIG.

MCQ 3

  1. E-Aksharayan is desktop software for converting scanned printed Indian Language documents into a fully editable text format in Unicode encoding.
  2. Ministry of electronics & IT launched e-Aksharayan in all 22 Indian languages.
  • Choose correct

(A) Only 1

(B) Only 2

(C) Both

(D) None

  • India Language Stack needed to overcome the barriers of communication: IT Secretary
  • E-Aksharayan in 7 Indian languages launched.
  • Addressing the symposium for Indian Languages Technology Industry ‘Bhashantara’, in New Delhi, Secretary, Ministry of Electronics and IT, Shri. Ajay Prakash Sawhney said that barrier-free communication is critical for the country and the goal is to have real-time translation capability in each of the Indic languages.
  • “We all are aware about India Stack, now we should come up with ‘India Language Stack’, which will help in overcoming the barriers of communication,” said Mr. Sawhney. The IT Secretary stressed upon the fact that with internet access becoming affordable, demand for regional content is increasing and will continue to grow.
  • The Secretary also launched e-Aksharayan in 7 Indian languages.
  • E-Aksharayan is desktop software for converting scanned printed Indian Language documents into a fully editable text format in Unicode encoding.
  • Mobile Testing Data in all 22 Indian languages useful in testing the display as well as inputting in mobile handsets IS standard 16333 (Part 3) was also released at the symposium. It defines the requirements for mobile handset for inputting of text in English, Hindi and at least one additional Indian official language along with facility of message readability in the phones for all 22 Indian official languages.
  • Speaking on the occasion, Ms. Swaran Lata, Program Head and Director, TDIL, MeitY, said that we have developed text to speech tech in 12 Indian languages and are working on all languages simultaneously to enhance the content.
  • Addressing the symposium Mr. Dilip Chenoy, Secretary General, FICCI, said, “Just like BPOs created a huge new sector, Indic language program under the Digital India can create millions of jobs.”
  • “By 2021, Indic language users will grow from current 234 million to reach 536 million, and there is a need to localise Indic languages and find ways to incorporate it to the internet” said Mr. Chetan Krishnaswamy, Director, Public Policy, Google.
  • The software supports editing in seven Indian languages - Hindi, Bangla, Malayalam, Gurmukhi, Tamil, Kannada & Assamese.

MCQ 4

  1. India jumped 22 places to 96th rank in the top 100 of the United Nations E-Government Development Index (EGDI) 2018.
  2. The E-Government survey is released by the United Nations every year.
  • Choose correct

(A) Only 1

(B) Only 2

(C) Both

(D) None

  • India jumped 22 places to 96th rank in the top 100 of the United Nations EGovernment Development Index (EGDI) 2018.
  • Denmark, with an index value of 0.9150, topped the 2018 E-Government Development Survey.
  • The E-Government survey is released by the United Nations in every two years. The 2018 edition was titled as 'Gearing E-Government to Support Transformation towards sustainable and resilient societies’.
  • India, which was ranked 118 in 2014, jumped 11 places to be ranked 96 in 2018. The EGDI is a composite index based on the weighted average of three normalized indices:
  1. Telecommunications Infrastructure Index (TII),
  2. Human Capital Index (HCI),
  3. Online Service Index (OSI)

MCQ 5

  1. Ayushman Bharat is a central sector scheme programme anchored in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW).
  2. It is an umbrella of two major health initiatives, namely Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna (PMJAY)
  3. Presently At National level, National Health Agency (NHA) in the form of Society has been registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, to implement the scheme. NHA is responsible for all operational matter of PMJAY
  • Choose correct

(A) 1 & 2

(B) 2 only

(C) 2 & 3

(D) All

AYUSHMAN BHARAT

  • Ayushman Bharat is a centrally sponsored programme anchored in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). It is an umbrella of two major health initiatives, namely Health and Wellness Centres (HWCs) and Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojna (PMJAY). Brief details of these components are as following:
  • Ayushman Bharat-Health & Wellness Centres (AB-HWC)
  • Delivery of comprehensive primary health care services through Health &Wellness Centres is a critical component of the newly announced Ayushman Bharat scheme. It places people and communities at the center of the health care delivery system, making health services responsive, accessible and equitable.
  • Nearly 1.5 lakh Sub-Centres and Primary Health Centres would be transformed as Health & Wellness Centres by 2022 to provide comprehensive and quality primary care close to the community while ensuring the principles of equity, affordability and universality.
  • Till date, 4503 HWCs have been operationalized in various states.
  • Key components of AB-HWC:
  • Additional Human Resource - New cadre of health care professional- referred to as the Mid-Level Health Provider- who is a nurse or an Ayurvedic Practitioner trained and accredited for a set of competencies related to primary health care and public health. Mid-Level Health Provider will lead the team of MPWs and ASHAs at SHC level
  • Multiskilling/ Training of existing service providers - upgrading skills to provide expanded package of services
  • Efficient logistics system to ensure availability of wide range of drugs and point of care diagnostics
  • Robust IT system – to create unique health id and longitudinal health record of all individuals and provision of tele-consultation services
  • Provision of services related to indigenous health system and yoga etc for promotion of wellness
  • Linkages with schools to train Health and Wellness Ambassadors to enable creating healthy habits in schools
  • The package of services envisaged at AB-HWC are:
  1. Care in pregnancy and child-birth.
  2. Neonatal and infant health care services
  3. Childhood and adolescent health care services
  4. Family planning, Contraceptive services and other Reproductive Health Care services
  5. Management of Communicable diseases including National Health Programmes
  6. Management of common communicable diseases and outpatient care for acute simple illness and minor ailments.
  7. Screening, Prevention, Control and Management of non-communicable diseases.
  8. Care for Common Ophthalmic and ENT problems
  9. Basic Oral health care
  10. Elderly and palliative health care services
  11. Emergency Medical Services
  12. Screening and Basic management of Mental health ailments
  • Key benefits for community under AB-HWC:
  • Expanded package of primary care services –ranging from maternal and child health, communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases (universal screening, prevention, control and management of five common communicable diseases: hypertension, diabetes and three common cancers – those of the oral cavity, breast and cervix, primary health care for diseases for the eye, oral health, ENT, mental health, provision of palliative care and care for the elderly, and medical emergencies)
  • Wide range of free drugs
  • Point of care diagnostics at the centres.
  • Tele-consultation services with Medical Officers for complications
  • Continuum of care ensured through referral linkages and protocols
  • Unique health id – longitudinal health record for each individual
  • Services related to indigenous health system and yoga for promotion of wellness.
  • Cabinet approves restructuring of National Health Agency as "National Health Authority" for better implementation of Pradhan Mantri - Jan Arogya Yojana
  • The Union Cabinet chaired by Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi has approved the restructuring of existing National Health Agency as "National Health Authority" for better implementation of Pradhan Mantri - Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY).
  • With this approval, the existing society "National Health Agency" has been dissolved and will be replaced by National Health Authority as an attached office to Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
  • The existing multi-tier decision making structure has been replaced with the Governing Board chaired by the Minister of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India which will enable the decision making at a faster pace, required for smooth implementation of the scheme.
  • The composition of the Governing Board is broad based with due representations from the Government, domain experts, etc. Besides, the States shall also be represented in the Governing Board on rotational basis.
  • No new funds have been approved. Existing budget that was approved earlier by the Cabinet for The National Health Agency, including costs related to IT, human resources, infrastructure, operational costs etc. would be utilized by the proposed National Health Authority.
  • It is envisaged that the National Health Authority shall have full accountability, authority and mandate to implement PM-JAY through an efficient, effective and transparent decision-making process.

MCQ 6

  • The major commitment of the NHP 2017 is raising public health expenditure progressively to 5.2 % of the GDP by 2025
  • The National Health Policy of the country was launched after a gap of 15 years
  • Choose correct

(A) Only 1

(B) Only 2

(C) Both

(D) None

NATIONAL HEALTH POLICY 2017

  • The National Health Policy of the country was launched after a gap of 15 years. The Cabinet in its meeting held on 15th March, 2017 approved the National Health Policy (NHP) 2017. NHP 2017 addresses the current and emerging challenges necessitated by the changing socio-economic, technological and epidemiological landscape. The process of formulation of the new Policy entailed wide consultation with multiple stakeholders and regional consultations before its approval by the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare and Group of Ministers.
  • The major commitment of the NHP 2017 is raising public health expenditure progressively to 2.5% of the GDP by 2025.
  • It envisages providing larger package of assured comprehensive primary healthcare through the Health and Wellness Centres. The Policy aims to attain the highest possible level of health and well-being for all at all ages through a preventive and promotive healthcare and universal access to quality health services without anyone having to face financial hardship as a consequence. This would be achieved through increasing access, improving quality and lowering the cost of healthcare delivery. NHP 2017 advocates allocating major proportion (two-thirds or more) of resources to primary care and aims to ensure availability of two beds per 1,000 population distributed in a manner to enable access within golden hour. The Policy also takes a fresh look at strategic purchase from the private sector and leveraging their strengths to achieve national health goals and seeks stronger partnership with the private sector.
  • Besides this, the highlights of the Policy are as following:
  • Assurance based approach - The Policy advocates progressively incremental assurance-based approach with focus on preventive and promotive healthcare
  • Health Card linked to health facilities- The Policy recommends linking the health card to primary care facility for a defined package of services anywhere in the country.
  • Patient Centric Approach- The Policy recommends the setting up of a separate, empowered medical tribunal for speedy resolution to address disputes /complaints regarding standards of care, prices of services, negligence and unfair practices, standard regulatory framework for laboratories and imaging centers, specialized emerging services, etc
  • Micronutrient Deficiency- There is a focus on reducing micronutrient malnourishment and systematic approach to address heterogeneity in micronutrient adequacy across regions.
  • Quality of Care- Public hospitals and facilities would undergo periodic measurements and certification of level of quality. Focus on Standard Regulatory Framework to eliminate risks of inappropriate care by maintaining adequate standards of diagnosis and treatment.
  • Make-in-India Initiative- The Policy advocates the need to incentivize local manufacturing to provide customized indigenous products for Indian population in the long run.
  • Application of Digital Health- The Policy advocates extensive deployment of digital tools for improving the efficiency and outcome of the healthcare system and aims at an integrated health information system which serves the needs of all stakeholders and improves efficiency, transparency, and citizen experience.
  • Private sector engagement for strategic purchase for critical gap filling and for achievement of health goals.
  • NHP 2017 has been duly supported by the Government through provision of Rs. 47352.51 crores to MoHFW under the Union Budget 2017-18. The amount is a 27.7% increase in allocation over previous year’s allocation. Further, in 2018-19 as well, increase of 11.5% in the outlay of health over 2017-18 with allocation of Rs.52,800 crore. Also, Rs. 24,908.62 crore provided for NHM in 2018-19, Rs. 2967.91 crore more than last year.

MCQ 7

  1. ALLIED AND HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONS BILL, 2018. provisions under are
  2. Establishment of a Central and corresponding State Allied and Healthcare Councils
  3. The State Council will undertake recognition of allied and healthcare institutions.
  4. The Bill only empowers the Central Government to make rules
  • Choose correct

(A) All

(B) None

(C) 1 & 2

(D) 2 & 3

ALLIED AND HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONS BILL, 2018

  • The Union Cabinet approved the Allied and Healthcare Professions Bill, 2018 on 22nd November 2018 for regulation and standardisation of education and services by allied and healthcare professionals.
  • The Bill provides for setting up of an Allied and Healthcare Council of India and corresponding State Allied and Healthcare Councils which will play the role of a standard-setter and facilitator for professions of Allied and Healthcare.
  • Key features:
  • Establishment of a Central and corresponding State Allied and Healthcare Councils; 15 major professional categories including 53 professions in Allied and Healthcare streams.
  • The Bill provides for Structure, Constitution, Composition and Functions of the Central Council and State Councils, e.g. Framing policies and standards, Regulation of professional conduct, Creation and maintenance of live Registers, provisions for common entry and exit examinations, etc.
  • The Central Council will comprise 47 members, of which 14 members shall be ex-officio representing diverse and related roles and functions and remaining 33 shall be non-ex-officio members who mainly represent the 15 professional categories.
  • The State Councils are also envisioned to mirror the Central Council, comprising 7 ex-officio and 21 non-ex officio members and Chairperson to be elected from amongst the non-ex officio members.
  • Professional Advisory Bodies under Central and State Councils will examine issues independently and provide recommendations relating to specific recognised categories.
  • The Bill will also have an overriding effect on any other existing law for any of the covered professions.
  • The State Council will undertake recognition of allied and healthcare institutions.
  • Offences and Penalties clause have been included in the Bill to check malpractices.
  • The Bill also empowers the Central and State Governments to make rules.
  • Central Govt. also has the power to issue directions to the Council, to make regulations and to add or amend the schedule.
  • Expected benefits:
  • Bring all existing allied and healthcare professionals on board during the first few of years from the date of establishment of the Council.
  • Opportunity to create qualified, highly skilled and competent jobs in healthcare by enabling professionalism of the allied and healthcare workforce.
  • High quality, multi-disciplinary care in line with the vision of Ayushman Bharat, moving away from a 'doctor led' model to a 'care accessible and team based’ model.
  • Opportunity to cater to the global demand (shortage) of healthcare workforce which is projected to be about 15 million by the year 2030, as per the WHO Global Workforce, 2030 report.