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Micro Current Affairs September 2021 PDF

Date: 30 September 2021

Indian Economy

LGSCAS= 1. Loan Guarantee Scheme for Covid-affected Sectors 2. Finance Minister has asked all stakeholders to conclude the Rs 50,000 crore LGSCAS in non-metros in time to deal with any future third wave 3. Aimed at boost- ing medical infrastructure in the country 4. Guarantee of 50% for Brownfield projects and 75% for Greenfield projects

Pashmina Shawls= 1. Directorate of Handicrafts and Handloom, Kashmir 2. Announced a Minimum Support Price (MSP) for Geographical Indication (GI)-certified hand-made Pashmina shawls 3. To sustain the old techniques

4. Two techniques- loom woven or kani shawls and the needle embroidered or sozni shawls 5. Fabric is of the three types - Shah Tush, Pashmina, and Raffal

Additional Tier 1 Bonds= 1. State Bank of India (SBI) 2. Raised Rs. 4,000 crore of the Basel compliant Additional

Tier 1 (AT1) bonds at coupon rate of 7.72% 3.   Also the lowest pricing ever offered on such debt issued by    any Indian bank 4. Since the implementation of Basel III capital rules in 2013

Saath= 1. Jammu and Kashmir 2. A Rural Enterprises Acceleration Programme 3. For Self Help Group (SHG) women 4. Aims to transform the lives of women and make them independent and strong in social and financial aspects 5. by mentoring the women associated with SHGs and create market linkages of products created by these women

Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (POWERGRID)= 1. A Maharatna CPSU under Ministry of Power, Government of India 2. Association for Talent Development (ATD) 2021 BEST Award 3. POWERGRID securing 8th rank among the 71 organizations from around the globe 4. Becoming the only PSU to win this award

Account Aggregator System= 1. Eight major banks have joined the Account Aggregator (AA) network 2. This will enable customers to easily access and share their financial data 3. Sharing of financial information in a real-time and data-blind manner between regulated entities

Business Blasters’ Programme= 1. Delhi govt 2. Developing young entrepreneurs at school-level 3. By providing students some seed money in order to start a business 4. Will be implemented in Delhi government schools under the “Entrepreneurship Mindset Curriculum (EMC)”

Tamil Nadu Urban Poor Housing Project= 1. Asian Development Bank (ADB)- approved a $150 million loan 2. Offering vulnerable and disadvantaged households access to safe, inclusive, affordable housing infrastructure & services

Differentiated GST Regime= 1. A ministerial group’s report on introducing

a differentiated regime for sectors where tax evasion is very high 2. Capaci- ty based tax is based on manufacturing capacity rather than production 3. Examples of sectors with high tax evasion include brick kilns, sand mining, and gutkha and pan masala production

High Ash Coal Gasification Based Methanol Production Plant= 1. First Indigenously Plant has been opened in Hyderabad 2. BHEL (Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited)-successfully demonstrated a facility to create methanol from high ash Indian coal 3. Part of NITI Aayog's 'Methanol Economy' programme 4. Will assist India's coal gasification mission and coal-to-hydro- gen production for Hydrogen Mission

Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme= 1. Revised by Ministry of Commerce and Industry 2. For specified agriculture products 3. Launched in 2019 4. For providing financial assistance for the transport and marketing of agricultural products to boost exports

‘nFiNi’ programme= 1. Launched by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) in partnership with Fiserv Inc.

2. Plug-and-play RuPay credit card stack, ‘nFiNi’ 3. A ready stack of services required for fintechs and banks to issue RuPay credit cards 4. Will enable fintech to co-create bank-sponsored credit cards 5. BaaS (banking-as-a-ser- vice) programme

T+1 Settlement = 1. Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) allowed stock exchanges to start the T+1 system 2. An option in place of T+2 for completion of share transactions

IRDAI Guidelines, 2021 = 1. Revised guidelines for trade credit insurance 2. Trade credit insurance- protects businesses against the risk of non-payment for goods and services 3. These guidelines will apply to all insurers transacting general insurance business

Digital Agriculture = 1. Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare 2. Signed 5 Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) with private companies for taking forward Digital Agriculture 3. Part of the Digital Agriculture Mission 4. Will draw on the National Farmers Database


Digital Agriculture

ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) and data ecosystems

  • To support the development and delivery of timely, targeted information and services to make farming profitable

Sustainable while delivering safe nutritious and affordable food for all


  • Agricultural biotechnology-Range of tools, including traditional breeding techniques
  • Precision agriculture (PA)-An approach where inputs are utilised in precise amounts to get increased average yields

Index of Industrial Production = 1. National Statistical Office (NSO) 2. India’s industrial output grew by 11.5% in July compared to a 10.5% contraction a year ago 3. Mining, manufacturing and electricity recorded growth of 19.5%, 10.5% and 11.1% 4. Output of the eight core sectors (Infrastructural output) - grew 9.4% in July 2021

Millet Mission = 1. Chhattisgarh government 2. To make the state a millet hub of India 3. To implement this mission, an MoU was signed between Indian Institute of Millet Research, Hyderabad

Production linked incentive (PLI) scheme = 1. Govt. approves PLI Scheme for auto, auto-components and drone industries 2. To enhance India’s manufacturing capabilities 3. Components of the scheme- Champion OEM Incentive scheme, Component Champion Incentive scheme

Reforms in Telecom Sector = 1. Union Cabinet has approved a number of structural and process reforms in the Telecom sector 2. A redefinition of the much-litigated concept of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) 3. A four-year moratorium on Telecom Service Providers (TSPs) dues to the government, among others.

India’s first-ever Euro Green Bond = 1. Issued by power sector NBFC, Power Finance Corporation Ltd (PFC) 2. The 7-year Euro 300 million Bond has been priced at 1.841 percent 3. Also the first-ever Euro issuance by an Indian NBFC

Rail Kaushal Vikas Yojana = 1. Launched by Indian Railways 2. Advance- ment of Skill India Mission 3. Under the aegis of Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) 4. The mission will provide Railways an entry-level training in industry-relevant skills with the help of 75 Railway training institutes across India 5. Mission will train about 50 thousand youth

Digital Payment Systems = 1. Central banks of India and Singapore will link their respective fast digital payment systems 2. Unified Payments Interface (UPI) and PayNow - for “instant, low-cost, cross-border fund transfers” 3. The linkage is targeted to be operationalised by July 2022 Promoting Pearl Farming in Tribal Areas = 1. TRIFED (Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India) 2. TRIFED inked an agreement with the Jharkhand-based Purty Agrotech for the promotion of pearl farming in tribal areas 3. It Will be developed into a Van Dhan Vikas Kendra Cluster (VDVKC) 4. Easily practiced by tribals who have access to nearby water bodies 5. Increased Farmers Income, Eco-Friendly, Water Purification

GST Council Meeting = 1. 45th meeting was held recently 2. Council decided to extend the GST relief on several drugs related to Covid-19 treatment till December 2021

Integrated Aroma Dairy Entrepreneurship = 1. Proposed by Union Minister of State Science & Technology 2. For Jammu & Kashmir to augment the income of farmers 3. Popularly referred as "Lavender or Purple Revolution" 4. To promote the cultivation of aromatic crops for essential oils 5. Nodal laboratory - CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CSIR-CIMAP), Lucknow

Vanijya Saptah = 1. Commerce Ministry 2. From 20 to 26 September 3. Many programmes and events will be organized to showcase India’s rising economic force across the country 4. Five national seminars will be organ- ized by the Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT)


WFP-ICRISAT sign agreement on Food Security = 1. United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) + International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) 2. On programmes and research in order to improve food, nutrition security and livelihoods across India

Pusa Basmati 1979 and Pusa Basmati 1985 = 1. Country’s first-ever non-GM (genetically modified) herbicide-tolerant rice varieties 2. Devel- oped by Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) 3. These varieties can be directly seeded and significantly save water and labour compared to conventional transplanting

Listing of Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) = 1. The Union Cabinet has approved capital infusion in the Export Credit Guarantee Corporation (ECGC) 2. The government will inject Rs 4,400 crore in the ECGC over a period of five years beginning 2021-22 3. The Cabinet also approved continuation of the National Export Insurance Account (NEIA) scheme 4. ECGC- Export Risks Insurance Corporation in 1957 the name  was changed to Export Credit & Guarantee Corporation Ltd in 1964, changed to ECGC Ltd in August 2014



China’s New Sea-Road-Rail Link= 1. Indian Ocean 2. Providing Chengdu (China) with access to the Indian Ocean via Yangon (Myan- mar) 3. China's first trade corridor to link western China with the Indian Ocean 4. Connects the logistics lines of Singapore, Myanmar, and China

Resolution 2593= 1. India-led UNSC's resolution on Taliban 2. Sponsored by France, UK, and the US 3. Adopted with 13 members, including India 4. Two permanent and veto-wielding members Russia and China abstained



  • Neither a currency nor a claim on the IMF.
  • It is a potential claim on the freely usable currencies of IMF members.
  • SDRs can be exchanged for these currencies.


Special Drawing Rights= 1. IMF 2. Made an allocation of SDR 12.57 billion to India 3. Equivalent to around $17.86 billion at the latest exchange rate 4. Now, the total SDR holdings of India stand at SDR 13.66 billion

New Development Bank (NDB) = 1. BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) 2. New Members- United Arab Emirates, Uruguay and Bangladesh 3. First new member countries 4. NDB was established in 2015

Durand Line= 1. Afghanistan and Pakistan 2. Taliban has said that Afghans oppose the fence erected by Pakistan along the Durand Line 3. Fencing of the 2,640 km land border with Afghanistan began in March 2017

Sri Lanka= 1. Declares Food Emergency 2. Private Banks in the country ran out of foreign exchange to finance imports 3. Economy reduced by a 3.6 percent in 2020 because of the covid-19 pandemic

  1. Foreign Reserves of Sri Lanka decreased

6th Eastern Economic Forum= 1. Prime Minister of India addressed the plenary session via video-conferencing 2. PM highlighted the importance of India-Russia relations and potential areas of coopera- tion 3. In line with the ‘Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership’

India-US Trade Issues: Free Trade Agreement= 1. Joe Biden US administration 2. Indicated that it is no longer interested in securing a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with India 3. US is India’s largest trading partner India and US Project Agreement= 1. To jointly develop an Air-launched Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (ALUAV) or drones 2. Can be launched from an aircraft 3. Air Force Research Laboratory, Indian Air Force, and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO)


Eastern Economic Forum

    • Established by the President of the Russian Federation in the year 2015
    • Takes place each year in Vladivostok
    • A platform for the discussion of key issues-world economy, regional integration, global challenges facing Russia and other nations

13th BRICS Summit= 1. Prime Minister chaired the annual summit 2. Theme- 'BRICS@15: Intra-BRICS cooperation for continuity, consolidation and consensus' 3. Adopted BRICS Counter-Terrorism Action Plan 4. Delhi Declara- tion-called for reforms of the principal organs of the United Nations: Free Trade Agreement= 1. Joe Biden US administration 2. Indicated that it is no longer interested in securing a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) with India 3. US is India’s largest trading partner


2+2’ Dialogue

  • Highest-level institutional mechanism between the two countries
  • Defence/foreign ministers or secretar- ies meet with their counterparts from another country
  • India holds such talks with Australia, Japan and the USA

Cuba= 1. The first country in the world to vaccinate children from the age of two against COVID-19 2. Using home-grown jabs not recognised by the World Health Organisation

India-Australia = 1. First 2+2 Dialogue 2. Focus on Indo-Pacific, Supply Chain Resilience Initiative, Shared Vision on Afghanistan

US-India Strategic Clean Energy Partnership (SCEP) = 1. Revamped 2. Launched in accordance with the US - India Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 Partnership 3. Two main tracks: the Strategic Clean Energy Partnership and the Climate Action and Finance Mobilization Dialogue

United Nations Day for South-South Cooperation = 1. 12 September 2. Celebrates the economic, social, and

political developments made in recent years by regions and countries in the south 3. Highlights the UN’s efforts to work on technical cooperation among developing countries

Climate Action and Finance Mobilisation Dialogue (CAFMD) = 1. India-US 2. One of the two tracks of the India-US Climate and Clean Energy Agenda 2030 3. Pillars- joint proposals looking at ways in which emissions could be reduced, US will collaborate in attracting capital and enhancing the enabling environment to deploy 450 GW of renewable energy capacity in India, “measure and manage climate risks”

Quad Meeting = 1. The US announced the first in-person meeting of the Quad countries 2. Going to be held in New York, US 3. Heads of all the four countries (India, Japan, Australia, and the US) are going to attend the meeting

17th Indo-US Economic Summit = 1. Bouncing Back-Resilient Recovery Path Post Covid-19 2. Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, Nitin Gadkari, addressed 3. Bilateral trade between India and the US has increased from $16 billion to $ 149 billion in the last two decades 4. It is projected to reach $500 billion by 2025 5. Summit was organised by the Indo-American Chamber of Commerce (IACC)

AUKUS Grouping = 1. The US has announced a new trilateral security partnership for the Indo-Pacific 2. Between Australia, the UK and the US (AUKUS) 3. It will focus on advancing strategic interests in the Indo-Pacific region 4. As part of this initiative, Australia will acquire nuclear-powered submarines 5. Multi-Sectoral Cooperation

Indo-American Chamber of Commerce (IACC)

  • Established in 1968
  • Apex bilateral Chamber
  • Started by Ambassador Chester Bowles
  • To promote Indo-American business, trade relations, and economic relations
  • Promotes bilateral trade as well as investment & technology transfer

First-ever Global Buddhist Conference = 1. India to organise on November 19 and 20, 2021 2. In Nava Nalanda Mahavihara campus, in Nalanda, Bihar 3. Being organised by Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR)

Exercise PEACEFUL MISSION -2021 = 1. A Joint Counter Terrorism Exercise between Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), 6th edition 2. Being hosted by Russia in the Orenburg Region of South-West Russia from September 13 to 25, 2021 3. Indian military contingent comprising of an all arms combined force of 200 personnel is participating

Sufficiency Economy Philosophy (SEP) = 1. Thailand 2. Homegrown development approach 3. An alternative approach to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 4. In 2020, Indian PM announced Atmanirbhar Bharat or Self-reliant India Movement, which has a similar approach to make India and its citizens independent and self-reliant in all senses.

15th East Asia Summit Energy Ministers Meeting = 1. Theme- “We Care, We Prepare, We Prosper” 2. Coordinating efforts of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries 3. Acting East is now a central element in India's Indo-Pacific vision

Iran = 1. Becomes 9th member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisa- tion 2. In the 21st summit of the SCO leaders in Dushanbe, Tajikistan 3. Iran will henceforth cooperate and interact with member countries as the main member of the important regional organisation

India-Australia first JWG meeting = 1. On Coal and Mines 2. Focused on Indian coal resources in the present & future scenario 3. Minerals demand & supply scenario 4. Discussed the collaboration on Clean Coal Technology

QUAD Leaders’ Summit 2021 = 1. The first in-person meeting of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) was held in Washington on September 24, 2021 2. Leaders agreed to keep a careful eye on Pakistan, as its historic rival has been an instigator of trouble in Afghani- stan 3. Indian PM proposed “Quad vaccine initiative” will help Indo-Pa- cific nations

Build Back Better World (B3W) Initiative = 1. An international infrastructure investment initiative was announced

by the Group of Seven (G-7) in June 2021 2. US officials are set to visit Latin America to look for possible projects

3. US’ initiative to counter China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI 4. areas of focus- Climate, Health and health securi- ty, Digital technology, Gender equity, and equality

China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) = 1. Pakistan has discussed Taliban-led Afghanistan joining CPEC 2. China has proposed the construction of the Peshawar-Kabul motorway 3. CPEC aims to link the Western part of China (Xinjiang province) to the Gwadar Port in Balochistan, Pakistan

Science & Technology

Scrub Typhus= 1. A mystery fever 2. Uttar Pradesh 3. Re-emerging Rickettsial infection 4. Caused by a bacterium called Orientia tsutsugamushi 5. Marked by fever and rashes

Ubreathe Life= 1. World’s first Plant-based smart air-purifiers 2. Scientists of Indian Institutes of Technology, Ropar & Kanpur + Faculty of Management Studies of Delhi University 3. Smart Bio-Fil- ter

Dementia= 1. WHO (World Health Organisation) released a report ‘Global status report on the public health response to dementia’ 2. A syndrome- usually of a chronic or progressive nature that leads to deterioration in cognitive function 3. Affects memory, thinking, orientation, comprehension, calculation, learning capacity, language, and judgment 4. Consciousness is not affected

Blue Straggler Stars= 1. First-ever comprehensive analysis of blue stragglers 2. Indian researchers have proposed a hypothesis for evolution of blue straggler stars 3. Blue stragglers- a class of stars on open or globular clusters that stand out as they are bigger and bluer than the rest of the stars

Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)= 1. Centenary celebration is being observed for the BCG 2. Presently the sole

vaccine available for the prevention of Tuberculosis (TB) 3. Tuberculosis- caused by a bacterium called Mycobacte- rium tuberculosis

Hycean worlds= 1. Some astronomers have identified a new class of exoplanets 2. Hycean= hydrogen and ocean

3. Planet-wide oceans and hydrogen-rich atmospheres might cover these worlds

Lunar Science Workshop 2021= 1.By ISRO 2. To commemorate the completion of two years of operation of Chandrayaan-2 orbiter in lunar orbit

ATL Space Challenge 2021= 1. Launched by NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) + ISRO (Indian Space Research Organisation) + CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) 2. To ensure that students of classes 6 to 12 are given an open platform- innovate and enable themselves to solve digital age space technology problems

  1. Students from both ATL (Atal Tinkering Labs) and non-ATL schools can submit their entries 4. aligns with the World Space Week 2021(observed from 4th -10th October each year)


    • Launched on 22nd July, 2019
    • Second spacecraft in the Indian series of Lunar exploration satellites
    • Comprised an orbiter, lander named Vikram, and rover named Pragyan
    • To explore the unexplored South Polar region of the Moon
    • Findings- Detection of Argon-40, Chromium and Manganese, Observations of Microflares of the Sun, Detection of the Subsur- face Water-ice

Gaofen-5 02= 1. New Earth observation satellite of China 2. Successfully launched from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Centre in north China’s Shanxi Province 3. Gaofen-5 02 satellite is the 24th in the series of Gaofen Earth-observation satellites 4. to monitor environmental protection efforts and boost its natural resources surveil- lance

Digital Population Clock= 1. Inaugurated by MoS for Health & Family Welfare 2. Launched in order to provide minute by minute estimate of India’s population 3. Capture data on Total Fertility Rate, Infant Mortali- ty Rate as well as Maternal Mortality Rate

Restraining Mosquito Populations = 1. By leveraging advancements in Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-based genetic engineering 2. Sterile Insect Technique is an environmentally safe and proven technology to suppress wild popula- tions

REX MKII = 1. Armed robot 2. Unveiled by Israel Aerospace Industries

3. Robots in Warfare- can patrol battle zones, track infiltrators and open fire

Skyroot Aerospace = 1. Hyderabad-based Space technology startup 2. Become the first private company to formally enter into an agreement with the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) 3. Skyroot Aerospace is building the Vikram series of rockets to carry small satellites into space

Rules for Ammonium Nitrate = 1. Government has amended the rules for Ammonium Nitrate 2. To curb its

pilferage, introduce fire-fighting provisions 3. Improve ways to handle and store the chemical 4. Lesson learnt from the Beirut Explosion in 2020

Solar DC cooking technology = 1. Developed by the Central Mechani- cal Engineering Research Institute (CMERI) 2. Solar Energy-based Cooking System 3. Consists of a solar PV panel, charge controller, battery bank, and cooking oven 4. Provides a Clean Cooking Environ- ment, Invertor-Less Direct Operation, Fast and Uniform Heating 5. A potential to save 1 ton Carbon Dioxide emissions per year/household Electronic Microchip or Microflier = 1. Created by Northwestern University (US) 2. The smallest-ever human-made flying structure- about the size of a grain of sand 3. It can be packed with ultra-miniaturized technology, including sensors, power sources, and antennas for wireless communication 4. Monitoring Air Pollution and Airborne Disease

Landsat 9 = 1. Earth monitoring satellite 2. Launched by NASA, from Vandenberg Space Force Base in California 3. A joint mission of NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS) 4. Referred to as NASA's' new eye in the sky 5. It takes 8 days to capture the whole Earth 6. With the

European Union’s Sentinel-2 satellites, the Landsat Satellite will provide a better estimation of the extent of climate change

INSPIRESAT-1 Cubesat Satellite = 1. Developed under the Internation- al Satellite Program in Research and Education (INSPIRE) 2. Small scientific satellite- low earth orbit 3. Equipped with a Compact Ionosphere Probe for studying the earth's ionosphere 4. It will also provide a greater understanding of why the Sun’s corona is orders of magnitude hotter than the photosphere

Global Roadmap to Defeat Meningitis by 2030 = 1. Launched by  World Health Organization (WHO) 2. First-ever global strategy to defeat meningitis 3. Goals- Eliminate epidemics of bacterial meningitis, Reduce cases of vaccine-preventable bacterial meningitis by 50% and deaths by 70%, Reduce disability and improve quality of life after meningitis of any cause 4. Meningitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord

Polity & Governance

e-ILP platform= 1. Inner Line Permit (ILP) system, Manipur 2. Chief Minister virtually launched the e-ILP platform for effective regulation 3. ILP system came into effect in Manipur on 1st January 2020 4. Four types of permits are issued - temporary, regular, special and labour permits

Karbi Anglong Peace Accord= 1. The historic tripartite Accord was signed between the government of India, the government of Assam, and six factions of the Karbi 2. The armed groups shall shun their path of violence, surren- der their weapons, and disband their organizations within one month of the date of signing of the Karbi Anglong Peace Accord 3. All camps occupied by Karbi groups shall be vacated right after

Vatan Prem Yojana= 1. Launched by Gujarat 2. A repackaged version of the Madar-e-Vatan scheme by the state government 3. Vatan prem yojana will cover village-level projects- Smart classes in schools and Library, Communi- ty hall, Primary health centre and Anganwadi, Water recycling, drainage, sewage treatment and beautification of ponds

Common Services Centres (CSC)= 1. Ministry of Electronics & IT (MeitY), 2006 2. Received approvals to manage and operate Passport Seva Kendra kiosks in rural areas 3. Strategic cornerstone of the National e-Governance Plan (NeGP) 3. Objective- to provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and data content and services 4. CSC 2.0- launched in 2015, Outreach to all gram panchayats in the country, service delivery oriented entrepreneurship model.

INSPIRE Awards-MANAK = 1. MANAK- Million Minds Augmenting National Aspiration and Knowledge 2. 8th National Level Exhibition and Project Competition (NLEPC) for the INSPIRE Awards – MANAK has commenced 3. INSPIRE Scheme- Innovation in Science Pursuit for Inspired Research, a Flagship program of Ministry of Science and Technology & Earth Sciences, to communicate to the youth population the creative pursuit of science and attract talent to the study of science at an early stage

Shikshak Parv 2021= 1. Being celebrated by the Ministry of Education from 5th-17th September 2. To recognize the contributions of teachers

3. To take New Education Policy (NEP) 2020 a step forwar

Right to Sit= 1. Tamil Nadu government 2. Tabled a bill to amend Tamil Nadu Shops and Establishments Act, 1947 3. Sought to add a subsec- tion to mandatorily provide seating facilities for the employees 4. Article 42 of the Indian Constitution prompts the State to make provisions for just and humane conditions at work.

Ceasefire with NSCN (K) Niki Group= 1. Union Government + Nation- al Socialist Council of Nagaland (K) Niki Group-Ceasefire Agreement 2. For a period of one year 3. A significant boost to the Naga peace process

C-295 Aircraft Deal= 1. Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) 2. Cleared procurement of 56 C-295 MW medium transport aircraft for the Indian Air Force 3. Under the Make-in-India initiative in the aerospace sector 4. C-295MW aircraft- purchased from Airbus Defence and Space S.A., Spain

Delegation of Financial Powers to Defence Services (DFPDS), 2021 rules= 1. Ministry of Defence 2. To overcome procedural delays, bring about greater decentralisation and operational efficiency 3. Big step in defence reforms to strengthen security infrastructure


Atmanirbhar Bharat corner= 1. Tribal Cooperative Marketing Devel- opment Federation of India (TRIFED) + Ministry of External Affairs 2. Set up an Atmanirbhar Bharat corner in 100 Indian Missions/ Embassies across the world 3. First- inaugurated at the Indian Embassy in Bangkok, Thailand

Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2021 = 1. Launched by Jal Shakti Ministry 2. Rural cleanliness survey 2021 under Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Phase-II 3. Assesses the state of hygiene, cleanliness and sanitation in rural India 4. As a part of the Centre’s initiative to award Open Defecation Free (ODF) Plus status to villages 5. 17,475 villages spanning across 698 districts would be covered

Task Force for Coal-Based Hydrogen Production = 1. Constituted by Union Government 2. To prepare a road map for coal-based hydrogen production (Black Hydrogen) 3. Also responsible for coordination with the Coal Gasification Mission and NITI Aayog

SPIN (Strengthening the Potential of India) Scheme = 1. Launched by Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) 2. Under SPIN, KVIC will facilitate potters to get easy loans from banks 3. Aimed at sustainable development by creating local self-employment 4. No-subsidy program

5. Bank loans under Pradhan Mantri Shishu Mudra Yojana

Ek Pahal Campaign = 1. Ministry of Law and Justice 2. A Pan-India Special Campaign called “Ek Pahal Drive” for Justice Delivery at doorstep 3. Launched by Department of Justice and NALSA 4. To encourage mass registration under Tele-Law

Forest Rights Act = 1. The Jammu and Kashmir government has decided to implement the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006 2. This will elevate the socio-economic status of a sizable section of the 14-lakh-strong population of tribals and nomadic communities 3. Signif- icance-It expands the mandate of the Fifth and the Sixth Schedules of the Constitution, The alienation of tribes was one of the factors behind the Naxal Movement, It has the potential to democratise forest govern- ance

Draft Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 = 1. Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) discussed and reopened it for consultations 2. Commonly referred to as the Privacy Bill 3. Intends to protect individual rights by regulating the collection, movement, and processing of data Patents (Amendment) Rules, 2021 = 1. Introduced by union govern- ment 2. Reduced the fee for patent filing and prosecution for educa- tional institutions by 80% 3. Aimed at promoting innovation and development of new technologies

Fast and Secured Transmission of Electronic Records (FASTER) System = 1. Supreme Court has given the go-ahead to implement 2. It will ensure effective implementation of Article 21 (right to life) 3. System proposes transmission of e-authenticated copies of interim orders, stay orders, bail orders and record of proceedings 4. To the duty-holders for compliance and due execution, through a secured electronic communication channel 5. Ensure that under trials are not made to wait for days 6. Prevent unnecessary arrests and custody of people

SAUBHAGYA Scheme = 1. Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana (SAUBHAGYA Scheme) 2. Successfully completed four years of its implementation 3. 2.82 crore households have been electrified since its launch till 31st March 2021 4. It was launched in 2017 to ensure electrification of all households.

Ayushman Bharat Digital Mission = 1. Launched by the Prime Minister 2. The nationwide rollout of the project coincides with the National Health Authority (NHA) 3. Aims to provide digital health IDs for all Indian citizens to help hospitals, insurance firms 4. Being implemented in the pilot phase in six States & Union Territories Meghalaya Enterprise Architecture Project (MeghEA) = 1. The project aims to improve service delivery and governance for the people using the power of Digital technologies 2. Spread across 6 pillars i.e. Governance, Human Resources, Entrepreneurship, Primary Sector, Infrastructure, and Environment 3. Line with the vision of Digital India

Seed Capital Module = 1. Launched by Ministry of Food Processing Industries 2. Under Pradhan Mantri Formali- sation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) 3. To help Self Help Groups (SHGs) 4. It was launched on Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Urban Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NULM) MIS (Management Information System) Portal

Elder Line = 1. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 2. The first Pan-India toll-free helpline number (14567) for Senior Citizen 3. International Day of Older Persons observed on 1st October 4. Earlier SAGE (Senior- care Aging Growth Engine) initiative was launched

Airspace Map of India = 1. Launched by Ministry of Civil Aviation 2. An airspace map of India for drone opera- tions 3. Shows red, yellow and green zones across the country 4. Allow civilian drone operators to check the demarcated no-fly zones 5. The Drone Rules, 2021 - to create a 'digital sky platform' ("the Platform") which is a business-friendly single-window



State of the World's Trees Report= 1. Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) 2. Warns that almost  a third of the world’s tree species are at risk of extinction 3. Hundreds are on the brink of being wiped out 4. Most at-risk trees are species including magnolias and dipterocarps 5. Commonly found in Southeast Asian rainforests. Oak trees, maple trees and ebonies also face threats 6. Top three threats- crop production, timber logging and livestock farming

Snow Leopard= 1. Ladakh has adopted as State animal 2. Habitat-Western

Himalayas (Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh), Eastern Himalayas (Uttarakhand and Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh) 3. Hemis National Park- Snow Leopard capital, biggest national park in India 4. IUCN-Vulnerable 5. CITES- Appendix I 6. Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972- Schedule I

Black-Necked Crane= 1. Ladakh has adopted as State bird 2. Also known as Tibetan crane 3. Habitat- Tibetan plateau, Sichuan (China), and eastern Ladakh (India) 4. IUCN Red List- Near Threatened 5. CITES-Appendix I 6. Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972- Schedule I

1st Asian Country to launch a Plastics pact= 1. India 2. Developed by World-Wide Fund for Nature-India 3. It Will help to promote a circular system for plastics

Bhitarkanika National Park= 1. Odisha 2. Under severe threat 3. Due to planned diversion of freshwater from the Brahmani river basin 4. Lack of normal flow of fresh water would increase saline ingression upstream 5. Reduction in water discharge will reduce the mangroves 6. Without the mangroves, the Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary will become a marine desert

7. Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary-world’s largest population of Olive Ridley sea turtles

Behler Turtle Conservation Award= 1. Indian biologist Shailendra Singh has been awarded 2. For bringing three critically endangered turtle conser- vation species back from the brink of extinction 3. Northern River Terrapin-Sundarbans eco-region, IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered 4. Red-crowned Roofed Turtle- National Chambal River Gharial Sanctuary, IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered 5. Black Softshell Turtle- ponds of temples in northeastern India and Bangladesh, IUCN Red List: Critically Endangered

International Fund for Agricultural Development= 1. An international financial institution and specialized United Nations agency 2. Committed to focus 30% of its climate finance to support nature-based solutions in rural small-scale agriculture by 2030 3. Formation- 1977 4. Headquarters- Rome, Italy 5. India is also a member country 5. Brings out the Rural Development Report every year

India’s first Dugong Conservation Reserve= 1. Tamil Nadu 2. In the Palk Bay on the southeast coast 3. Dugong or sea cow-Endangered marine mammal, habitat loss, sea pollution, and loss of sea grass

IUCN World Conservation Congress= 1. IUCN World  Conservation Congress 2020- being held in Marseille, France 2. Held every four years 3. First was conducted in the United States in 1948 4. IUCN Red List Update- Indonesia’s Komodo dragon (world’s largest living lizard) has been moved from vulnerable to endangered, Atlantic bluefin tuna moved from endan- gered to least concern, Southern bluefin tuna moved from critically endan- gered to endangered, Albacore and yellowfin tunas moved from near threatened to least concern, Pacific bluefin tuna moved from vulnerable to near threatened

Manda Buffalo= 1. Odisha 2. National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR)-recognised as the 19th unique breed of buffaloes found in India 3. Habitat- Eastern Ghats and plateau of Koraput region of Odisha 4. Buffaloes have ash grey and grey coats, some are silver-white in colour 5. Manda are resistant to parasitic infections, less prone to diseases and can live, produce and reproduce at low or nil input systems.

Deepor Beel= 1. Wildlife Sanctuary (Assam) 2. The Eco-sensitive zone of the Deepor Beel has been notified by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) 3. Deepor Beel is one of the largest freshwater lakes in Assam 4. Assam’s only Ramsar site 5. An Important Bird Area by Birdlife International 6. Water channel of River Brahmaputra


Eco-Sensitive Zone

  • Areas within 10 km around Protected Areas, National Parks, and Wildlife Sanctuaries
  • Notified by MoEFCC, under Environment Protection Act 1986
  • The basic aim is to regulate certain activities around National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries

India’s first bio-brick-based building= 1. At IIT Hyderabad 2. Bio-bricks from agro-waste 3. Part of the Bold Unique Idea Lead Development (BUILD) project

International Day of Clean Air for Blue Skies= 1. Every year on September

7 2. By the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 3. 2021 theme– “Healthy Air, Healthy Planet”

Footprints of 3 Dinosaur Species = 1. Thar desert, Jaisalmer district, Rajasthan 2. Three species of dinosaurs - Eubrontes cf. giganteus, Eubron- tes glenrosensis and Grallator tenuis

The Golden Rock Railway Workshop (GOC) = 1. Tiruchchirappalli, Tamil Nadu 2. 22nd National Award for Excellence in Energy Management 3. From the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)

Orca = 1. World’s largest plant designed to capture carbon dioxide out of the air 2. Iceland 3. Orca means ‘Energy’ 4. Will suck out up to 4,000 tons of CO2 per year

India’s largest open-air fernery = 1. Inaugurated in Ranikhet of Uttara- khand 2. Dual objective- conservation of fern species and create awareness about their ecological role and promote further research 3. A fernery is a specialized garden for the cultivation and display of ferns 4. Some of which are endemic to the state 5. Some hold medicinal value while some are threatened species that demand care and conservation

Arctic permafrost = 1. Latest IPCC report 2. Increasing global warming will result in reductions in Arctic perma- frost 3. Thawing of the ground is expected to release greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide 4. Permafrost- any ground that remains completely frozen - 32°F (0°C) or colder, most common in regions with high mountains and in Earth’s higher latitudes, 15% of the land area of the globe


Pilibhit Tiger Reserve = 1. Uttar Pradesh 2. A herd of Elephants from Shuklaphanta National Park reached the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve 3. Shuklaphanta National Park - protected area in the Terai of the Far-Western Region, Nepal Shoonya Campaign = 1. Launched by Niti Aayog+US-based Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)+RMI India 2.  An initiative to promote zero-pollution delivery vehicles by working with consumers and industry 3. Aims to accelerate adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the urban deliveries segment 4. Create consumer awareness about the benefits of zero-pollution delivery 5. An online tracking platform will share the campaign’s impact through data such as vehicle kilometers electrified, carbon savings, criteria pollutant savings

World Ozone Day = 1. 16th September-International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone layer 2. Montreal protocol (on Substances that deplete the ozone layer) signed on 16 September 1987 3. Protocol has led to the phase-out of 99% of ozone-depleting chemicals in refrigerators, air-conditioners and many other products  Black Tigers = 1. Scientists have unraveled the mystery behind Odisha’s

‘Black Tigers’ in Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR)-only tiger habitat in the world with melanistic tigers 2. Black Tigers are a rare colour variant of the tiger-not a distinct species or geographic subspecies 3. Factors for Black Colour- Geographic Isolation

Tarballs = 1. Black oil-emanating balls were seen lying on the shore of Mumbai Beach 2. Form when crude oil floats on the ocean surface by weathering of crude oil in marine environments 3. Several tarballs indicate an oil spill 4. Concerns- Tarballs can get stuck to the fishing nets, could affect marine life, Tarball pollution is a major concern to the global marine ecosystem

White-Sided Dolphins = 1. The traditional annual killing of whales and dolphins (grindadrap” hunt) in North Atlantic islands that belong to Denmark 2. Sparked controversy-1,428 white-sided dolphins were slaughtered at Faroe Islands 3. White-Sided Dolphins-name comes from the prominent white stripes, IUCN: Least Concern, CITES: Appendix II Mura-Drava-Danube (MDD) = 1. Declared as the world’s first ‘five-country biosphere reserve’ 2. By the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 3. Biosphere reserve covers 700 kilometres of the Mura, Drava and Danube rivers 4. Stretch- es across Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Hungary and Serbia 5. Amazon of Europe 6. Largest riverine protected area in Europe

Global Methane Pledge = 1. Announced by US President 2. An US-EU led effort to cut methane emissions by a third by the end of this decade

The US and the EU set a target of cutting at least 30% from global methane emissions 4. Based on 2020 levels, by 2030 5. If adopted around the world, this would reduce global heating by 0.2C by the 2040s

Earthshot Prize 2021 = 1. Two Indians (Vinisha and Vidyut) among 15 finalists were selected for the first-ever

Earthshot Prize 2021 2. Held in London 3. Prize was launched by Britain’s Prince William in October 2020 4. To search for inspiring and innovative solutions to problems facing the planet 5. Theme centred around five “Earth- shots- Protect and restore nature, Clean our air, revive our oceans, Build a waste-free world, Fix our climate.

Sea Cucumber = 1. Indian Coast Guard (ICG) has seized two tonnes of sea cucumber in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay areas in Tamil Nadu 2. A banned marine species 3. Sea cucumbers are marine invertebrates that live on the seafloor 3. Belong to the taxonomic class Holothuroidea

Act like garbage collectors of the ocean world 5. IUCN Red List- Brown Sea Cucumber (Endangered), Blackspotted Sea Cucumber  (Least Concern) 6. Wildlife Protection Act, 1972- Schedule I

New Species of Hybodont Shark = 1. Discovered by Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 2. From the Jaisalmer Basin of Rajasthan 3. A new species named by the research team as Strophodusjaisalmerensis

Lake Tanganyika = 1. A report by Save the Children (a humanitarian organisation) 2. Because of the rapid and significant rise of Lake Tanganyika- migration in East Africa’s Burundi 3. Second largest lake in eastern Africa 4. Longest freshwater lake in the world 5. The second deepest after Lake Baikal in Russia 6. Shared among four countries- Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Tanzania, and Zambia

Alternative of Single-use Plastics = 1. Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru (IISc) have found a way to make a substitute for single-use plastic (SUP) 2. Non-edible Castor oil was used in this process of making the polymer 3. Biodegradable, leak-proof and non-toxic

World Rhino Day = 1. 22th September 2. To spread awareness for all five species of rhino and work being done to save them 3. First announced by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) - South Africa in 2010 4. Five species of rhino – white and black rhinos in Africa, and the greater one-horned, Javan and Sumatran rhino species in Asia 5. Theme 2021- Keep the five Alive

Super-hydrophobic cotton composite = 1. Developed by the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Guwahati 2. With Metal-Organic Frame- work (MOF) that can clean up marine oil-spill 3. It will clean-up the spilled oil from environmental water (river, sea or ocean water)

Katley Fish = 1. The Government of Sikkim has declared ‘Cooper Mahseer’ locally named as ‘Katley’ as the state fish 2. To highlight the importance of the Katley fish and to give emphasis to its conservation measures

New Global Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs) = 1. Released by World Health Organisation (WHO) 2. This is the first-ever update of WHO since 2005 3. New air quality levels to protect the health of popula- tions-by reducing levels of key air pollutants 4. WHO’s new guidelines recommend air quality levels for 6 pollutants- particulate matter (PM 2.5 and 10), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO)

Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis = 1. Assessment Report from Working Group I-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2. Provides one of the most expansive scientific reviews on science and impacts of climate change 3. Illustrated scenarios- Very low and low GHG emissions, Emissions are double the current level by 2100, Emissions are double the current levels by 2050

Blue Food = 1. A report titled Environmental performance of blue foods - stated that Aquatic or blue foods can be made more environ- mentally sustainable 2. Report is published as part of the Blue Food Assessment (BFA) 3. Blue foods- food derived from aquatic animals, plants, or algae, rich in important nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals

Plant Discoveries 2020 = 1. New publication of Botanical Survey of India (BSI) 2. Added 267 new taxa/ species to the country’s flora 3. 22% of the discoveries were made from the Western Ghats 4. Western Himalayas (15%), Eastern Himalayas (14%), and Northeast Ranges (12%)

  1. Botanical Survey of India- 1980, Apex research organization under the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEFCC), Nine regional circles, Headquarter is in Kolkata

Rajaji Tiger Reserve = 1. Uttarakhand 2. A Supreme Court-appointed committee has questioned relaxations given for the upgrade of a 4.7-km road (Laldhang-Chillarkhal road) in the buffer zone of Rajaji Tiger Reserve 3. Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act of 2006- a tiger reserve must have a core or critical habitat and a buffer zone peripheral to it 4. Rajaji Tiger Reserve- It is part of Rajaji National Park, The Ganga and Song rivers flow through this


Indices and Reports

World Social Protection Report 2020–22= 1. International Labour Organization (ILO) 2. Globally 4.1 billion people are living without any social safety net of any kind

Report on Weather Disasters= 1. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2. Stated that weather disasters killed 2 million in the last 50 years 3. 91% of these deaths occurred in developing countries 4. Report also warned that the failure to reduce disaster losses as set out in the 2015 Sendai Framework

NIRF Rankings 2021= 1. Ministry of Education 2. Instituted by the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) (sixth edition) 3. Five Parameters-Teaching, Learning and Resources (TLR), Research and Professional Practice (RP), Graduation Outcomes (GO), Outreach and Inclusivity (OI), Peer Perception

Reforms in Urban Planning Capacity in India = 1. A report of NITI Aayog

Several recommendations that can unblock bottlenecks in the value chain of urban planning capacity in India 3. Programmatic Intervention for the Planning of Health, Re-engineering of Urban Governance, Revision of Town and Country Planning Acts 4. Report suggests that every city must aspire to become a ‘Healthy City for All’ by 2030 5. Recommended a Central Sector Scheme named ‘500 Healthy Cities Programme’, for a period of 5 years United in Science 2021 = 1. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) report 2. A multi-organization high-level compilation of the latest climate science information


‘Reforms in Urban Planning Capacity in India = 1. NITI Aayog Report 2. Recommendations-Planning of Healthy Cities: Central Sector Scheme ‘500 Healthy Cities Programme, The formation of an apex committee at the state level is recommended to undertake a regular review of planning legislation, strengthening the Role of the Private Sector, The constitution of a ‘National Council of Town and Country Planners’ as a statutory body of the Govern- ment of India 3. India’s population stood at 1210 million in 2011, with an urbanisation level of 31.1% (Census of India 2011)

Schemes/Programmes Related to Urban Development

    • Smart Cities: core infrastructure and quality of life to its citizens, a clean and sustainable environment and the application of Smart Solutions.
    • AMRUT Mission: To ensure that every household has access to a tap with an assured supply of water and a sewerage connection.
    • Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban: making urban India free from open defecation and achieving 100% scientif- ic management of municipal solid waste in 4,041 statutory towns in the country.
    • HRIDAY: The National Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana (HRIDAY), to bring together urban planning, economic growth and heritage conservation in an inclusive manner & with the objective of preserving the heritage character of the City.
    • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana-Urban: Addresses Urban housing shortage among the Urban Poor including the Slum Dwellers by ensuring a pucca house for eligible urban poor.

Global Innovation Index 2021 = 1. Launched by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) 2. India has climbed two spots and has been ranked 46th 3. GII aims to capture the multi-dimensional facets of innova- tion ranking and rich analysis referencing around 132 economies 4. 80 indicators grouped into innovation inputs and outputs 5. Top Five- Switzer- land, Sweden, U.S., U.K, and Republic of Korea 6. India has shot up from a rank of 81 in 2015 to 46 in 2021

State Food Safety Index = 1. Released by Union Minister for Health and Family Welfare 2. The 3rd State Food Safety Index (SFSI) 3. Gujarat was the top-ranking state, followed by Kerala and Tamil Nadu 4. Among smaller states, Goa stood first followed by Meghalaya and Manipur 5. Among UTs, Jammu & Kashmir, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and New Delhi secured top ranks 5. The index is developed by FSSAI (Food Safety and Standards Authority of India) 6. The parameters include Human Resources and Institutional Data, Compliance, Food Testing

– Infrastructure and Surveillance, Training & Capacity Building and Consumer Empowerment.

Climate-Induced Migration and Modern Slavery = 1. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and Anti-Slavery International's Report 2. Climate change is devastating the planet 3. Leading to intensifying global inequality as well as disputes over land, water, and scarce resources 3. People are being driven to migrate within and across borders- 55 million people were internally displaced 4. Women, children and minorities at risk of modern slavery and human trafficking 5. The Sundarban region is characterised by intense, recurrent, and sudden-onset disasters

Climate Indicators and Sustainable Development: Demonstrating the Interconnections = 1. A new report by

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2. WMO studied seven climate indicators — carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, temperature, ocean acidification and heat, sea ice extent, glacier melt, and sea-level rise 3. To contribute to the sustainable development agenda 4. Understanding the connections between climate and international development 5. The rising concentration of CO2 will impact all of the 17 United Nations-mandated SDGs

Congressional Report on Terrorism = 1. Name- Terrorist and Other Militant Groups in Pakistan 2. Released by the bipartisan research wing of US Congress in the Quad summit 2021 3. Stated that Pakistan is home to at least 12 groups designated as Foreign Terrorist Organisation (FTO)



ZAPAD 2021= 1. Russia 2. Multinational military exercise 3. Indian Army contingent will participate 4. Nine are Participating countries which include Mongolia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Serbia, Russia, India and Belarus

Defence Expo 2022= 1. Will be hosted by Gujarat 2. Will be held in Gandhinagar from 10th to 13th March next year 3. Aim of Defense Expo 2022 is to move from Make in India to make for the world

SIMBEX 2021= 1. Singapore-India Maritime Bilateral Exercise (SIMBEX) 2. 28th edition- in the southern fringes of the South China Sea 3. Initiated in 1994

AUSINDEX 2021= 1. India and Australia 2. 4th edition of AUSINDEX Naval Exercise 3. First held in India in 2015

India’s 1st Emergency Landing Facility= 1. Satta-Gandhav stretch of National Highway (NH) 925A in Barmer, Rajasthan 2. The project will cost

765.52 crores under the Bharatmala Pariyojana

INS Dhruv = 1. India’s first long-range nuclear missile tracking ship 2. Commissioned from Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh 3. India now joins an elite list of countries consisting of France, the US, the UK, Russia, and China LCA-Mk2 and AMCA = 1. According to the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), LCA Tejas-Mk2 will be rolled out in 2022 2. Advanced Medium Combat Aircraft (AMCA) will be rolled out in 2024 3. ADA is an autonomous body of the Ministry of Defence 4. LCA-Mk2- 4.5 generation aircraft, a replacement for the Mirage 2000 class of aircraft 5. AMCA- fifth-generation aircraft, stealth aircraft, unique shape to achieve low radar cross-section

India–Africa Defence Dialogue = 1. The government of India has proposed to institutionalise the India-Africa Defence Dialogue 2. Regular event, to be held on the sidelines of the biennial DefExpo military exhibition 3. First India-Africa Defence Ministers Conclave (IADMC) was held at DefExpo in February 2020 in Lucknow 4. Second India – Africa Defence Dialogue will be held at Gandhinagar, Gujarat in March 2022 5. Theme- India – Africa: Adopting Strategy for Synergizing and Strengthening Defence and Security Cooperation

Indian Army Chief’s Conclave = 1. A gathering of serving and former Chiefs of Army Staff of the Indian Army, 8th edition 2. Organised at New Delhi 3. Discussions on the rapid transformation of the Indian Army, self-reliance through Atmanirbhar and Make in India initiatives in defence manufacturing and skilling of the Indian soldier to fight modern wars

Surya Kiran-XV = 1. Indo-Nepal joint military exercise 2. Will be held from

September 20, 2021, at Pithoragarh in Uttarakhand 3. The joint military training will help in improving bilateral relations and further strengthen the traditional friendship between the two nations

Exercise Samudra Shakti = 1. Maritime exercise between India and Indonesia 2. In the Sunda Strait 3. Indian Navy ships Shivalik and Kadmatt and Aircraft P8I 4. In pursuance of India’s Act East Policy, Exercise ‘Samudra Shakti’ was conceived in 2018

Arjun Mk-1A Battle Tanks = 1. Ministry of Defence (MoD) placed an order with Heavy Vehicles Factory (HVF), Chennai 2. For supply of 118 Main Battle Tanks (MBTs) Arjun Mk-1A for the Indian Army 3. A new variant of Arjun Tank designed to enhance fire power, mobility and survivability

Bijoya Sanskritik Mahotsav = 1. Organised by Indian Army in Kolkata 2. This Mahotsav will be observed to mark the golden jubilee of the India-Pak war 1971 3. It will be organized as part of the Swarnim Vijay Varsha celebra- ti-ons

Agni V Missile Project = 1. China has cited a United Nations Security

Council (UNSC) resolution to question India’s missile programme 2. UNSC Resolution 1172 was issued after India's 1998 nuclear tests 3. Agni V Missiles- most advanced surface-to-surface indigenously built ballistic missile 4. Developed under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP)

Akash Prime Missile = 1. Defence Research and Development Organisa- tion (DRDO) has carried a successful maiden test flight from Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur, Odisha 2. Akash Prime is equipped with an indige- nous active Radio Frequency (RF) seeker for improved accuracy 3. Reliable performance under low-temperature environments at higher altitudes


Fukutoku-Okanoba Volcano= 1. Japan 2. Exploded in the Pacific Ocean, off Japan 3. A surge of Earthquakes and ground swelling was noticed at Hawaii’s Kilauea Volcano

WHITR-AP= 1. World Heritage Institute of Training and Research – Asia Pacific 2. CEPT (Centre for Environmental Planning and Technology, Gujarat) University’s programme in conservation and regeneration as a commended case of Global Innovation on World Heritage Education has been recognised by WHITR-AP

River Umngot= 1. Meghalaya 2. The Meghalaya government has scrapped an agreement with private power developers to execute the proposed Umngot hydroelectric project 3. Known as Dawki River 4. Cleanest river in Asia with its crystal clear water 4. Originates from the Eastern Shillong Peak

5. Acts as a natural divide between Jaintia and Khasi hills

63rd Ramon Magsaysay Award= 1. Winners for 2021-Bangladesh’s Dr. Firdausi Qadri (Affordable Vaccine Champion), Pakistan’s Muhammad Amjad Saqib (Poverty Alleviation Visionary), Filipino fisher and community environmentalist Roberto Ballon, American Steven Muncy for humanitarian work and refugee assistance, and Indonesian torch bearer for investigative journalism, Watchdog 2. Award is internationally recognized as the Nobel Prize counterpart of Asia

NUTRI GARDEN= 1. At All India Institute of Ayurveda (AIIA) 2. To mark the beginning of Poshan Maah – 2021 3. Nutri kitchen garden/Nutri garden is a method of planting and harvesting nutrient-rich crops in residential houses 5-star ‘Eat Right Station’ certification= 1. Food Safety and Standards

Authority of India (FSSAI) 2. Awarded to the Chandigarh Railway Station 3. For providing high-quality, nutritious food to passengers


Avani Lekhara= 1. 1st Indian women to win two Paralympic medals at a single edition 2. Gold in women’s 10m Air Rifle Standing (SH1) 3. Bronze medal in women’s 50m Rifle 3 Positions (SH1)

World University Rankings 2022= 1. Released by Times Higher Education (THE) formerly known as The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) 2. A magazine reporting specifically on news and issues related to higher education 3. The rankings cover the four main areas of university activity: teaching, research, knowledge transfer and international outlook 4. India is home to 35 of the world’s top 1,000 universities 5. University of Oxford tops the ranking for the sixth consecutive year

AYUSH AAPKE DWAR= 1. Launched by Ministry of AYUSH 2. As a part of

the Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav 3. Aims to distribute medicinal plant saplings

to 75 lakh households in one year 4. The medicinal plants being distributed

include Tejpatta, Stevia, Ashoka, Giloy, Ashwagandha, Lemongrass, Tulsi, Sarpagandha and Amla

International Literacy Day = 1. 8th September every year 2. The theme of 55th International Literacy Day- Litera- cy for a human-centred recovery: Narrowing the digital divide

V. O. Chidambaram Pillai= 1. The legendary freedom fighter - 150th birth anniversary 2. Popularly known as Kappalottiya Tamilan (The Tamil Helmsman) and Sekkizuththa Semmal (scholarly gentry who suffered at the oil press) 3. Established many institutions like Swadeshi Prachar Sabha, Dharmasanga Nesavu Salai, National Godown,  Madras Agro-Industrial Society Ltd and Desabimana Sangam Vidyanjali Portal = 1. Launched by Prime Minister 2. Launched to enable community or volunteers to contribute by connecting with the government and government-aided schools of their choice directly PRANA Portal= 1. Launched by Union environment minister Bhupen- dra Yadav 2. To track the progress of the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

Day of Social Justice= 1. September 17 2. Tamil Nadu government- to celebrate the birth anniversary of reformist leader E V Ramasamy Periyar “Social Justice Day”

Varanasi-Chunar Cruise service= 1. In Ganga River 2. From Varanasi to historic Chunar fort in Mirzapur 3. New dimension to the tourism facilities in Varanasi

Cristiano Ronaldo= 1. Broken the world record for most goals scored in men’s international football 2. Guinness World Records 3. Surpassed Iranian striker Ali Daei’s long-held record of 109 interna- tional goals

Hare Krishna Movement= 1. Prime Minister has released a special commemorative coin of Rs 125 2. to mark the 125th birth anniversary of ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) founder Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada

GC Murmu= 1. Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India 2. Elected as the chairman of the assembly of the Asian Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (ASOSAI) 3. For a period of three years from 2024 to 2027

Iqbal Singh Lalpura = 1. Former IPS officer 2. Appointed chairman of the National Commission for Minorities 3. He has written nearly 14 books on Sikh philosophy and history, such as ‘Japji Sahib ek vichaar’, Gurbaani ek vichaar’, and ‘Raj Karega Khalsa’

Sardardham Bhavan = 1. Inaugurated by Prime Minister at Ahmedabad 2. Also laid the foundation stone of Sardardham Phase-II Kanya Chhatralay 3. Goals of Sardardham- To recognise Patidars from Village to Global Level, Women Empowerment, Elimination of health-hazard habit such as Tobacco, liquors, Gutaka etc Subramania Bharathi = 1. Tamil Nadu government 2. A firebrand poet & freedom fighter 3. Decided to commemorate the death anniversary as Mahakavi Day 4. Year 2021 will mark the 100th death anniversary

World First Aid Day 2021 = 1. 11 September 2. Aimed at promoting the importance of first aid training and increasing its accessibility to save more lives in a crisis 3. Theme-‘First aid and road safety’, Paradip Port = 1. A Mobile X-Ray Container Scanning System (MXCS) has been installed 2. Installed under the Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) initiative 3. It will facilitate movement of unshredded metallic scrap materials in containers 4. Expected to boost the container volume at Paradip Port and will reduce the logistic cost


ICRISAT = 1. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics 2. Has been awarded the Africa Food Prize for 2021 3. For improving food security in sub-Saharan Africa 4. Tropical Legumes Project developed 266 varieties of improved legumes and half a million tons of seeds for a range of legume crops

Medicine from the Sky Project = 1. Initiative launched in Telangana by Civil aviation minister Jyotiradtiya Scindia 2. Aimed at transporting vaccines and other essential products to remote areas using drones 3. Taken upon a pilot basis in 16 green zones in Telangana 4. Later scaled up on the national level based on data

Nuakhai Juhar = 1. Agrarian festival of Western Odisha 2. Celebrated 1 day after the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi 3. Nua means new and khai means food

Hindi Diwas = 1. 14th September-Hindi Diwas in India 2. To prevent the increasing trend of the English language in the nation and the neglect of Hindi 3. World Hindi Day- 10th January

Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh = 1. Prime Minister laid the foundation stone of Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh (1886-1979) State University in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh 2. Freedom fighter, revolutionary, writer, social reformer, and internationalist 3. Country’s first polytechnic 4. In 1915 established a “Provisional Government of India (Bagh-e-Babur)” in Kabul

Bhanumati Gheewala = 1. National Florence Nightingale Award 2021

2. Nurse at Sir Sayajirao General Hospital, Gujarat 3. Given by the Indian Nursing Council, a statutory agency under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare

National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) = 1. Run by the educa- tion ministry 2. Bagged UNESCO Literacy Prize- King Sejong Literacy Prize 3. The recognition is for educating differently-abled people through technology-enabled inclusive learning material

iRASTE = 1. Launched by Union Minister for Road Transport, Nitin Gadkari 2. An Artificial Intelligence-powered project 3. Aims to help reduce road accidents understand the factors responsible for these events and come up with solutions to mitigate them 4. iRASTE-Intelli- gent Solutions for Road Safety through Technology and Engineering International Day of Democracy = 1. September 15 2. To review the state of democracy across the globe 3. Theme-Strengthening demo- cratic resilience in the face of future crises

Mammoth Cave = 1. USA 2. Official length of Mammoth Cave has been extended to 420 miles 3. Mammoth Cave National Park- located in the state of Kentucky (US) 4. The world's largest network of natural caves and underground passageways 5. Examples of limestone forma tions (karst topography) 6. World Heritage Site 7. Became an Biosphere Reserve in 1990


  • A non-profit, non-political public international research organisation
  • Conducts agricultural research for development in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa with a wide array of partners throughout the world.

Ayaan Shankta = 1. Named as “2021 International Young Eco-Hero” for his project “Conservation and Rehabilita- tion of Powai Lake" 2. A 12-year-old environmental activist from Mumbai, Maharashtra 3. The award presented by “The Action for Nature”, San Francisco based NGO

One Gram Panchayat-One DIGI-Pay Sakhi = 1. Launched by J&K Lt. Governor Manoj Sinha 2. DIGI-Pay Sakhi has introduced financial inclusion within the UT’s Self Help Group (SHG) ecosystem 3. Creating much needed financial access points with greater transparency even in the remotest of the areas

Sansad TV = 1. Launched Prime Minister Narendra Modi 2. Created by merging Lok Sabha TV and Rajya Sabha TV 3. TV programming will touch upon the functioning of the Parliament and democratic institutions, governance and implementation of schemes

Bilsarh village = 1. Uttar Pradesh’s Etah district 2. The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) discovered remains of an ancient temple dating back to the Gupta period (5th century) 3. The Bilsarh site was declared ‘protected’ in 1928 by the ASI

International Red Panda Day (IRPD) = 1. Third Saturday of September every year 2. To raise public awareness and support for red panda conservation issues 3. The day was launched by the Red Panda Network in 2010 4. Two distinct species of red pandas- Ailurus fulgens is commonly known as Himalayan Red Panda, Ailurus fulgens styani commonly known as Chinese Red Panda

Doing Business report = 1. The World Bank Group has decided to stop publishing 2. Because of allegations of irregularities 3. World Bank will now be working on a new approach of assessing the business and invest- ment climate

La Palma Island = 1. Spain 2. The Cumbre Vieja volcano in La Palma, one of Spain's Canary Islands, erupted 2. Erupted for the first time in 50 years 3. La Palma is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands, Spain

Sheikh Hasina = 1. Bangladesh Prime Minister 2. Conferred with the “SDG Progress Award” 3. By the UN-sponsored Sustainable Develop- ment Solutions Network (SDSN)

World Alzheimer’s Day = 1. September 21 2. The day raises awareness regarding the cause and severity of Alzheimer’s disease 3. Alzheimer- a degenerative brain condition that gradually deteriorates memory and cognitive abilities causes brain cells to deteriorate and die 4. Cause of dementia in older people

International Blue Flag certification = 1. Two more beaches of India Kovalam in Tamil Nadu and Eden in Puducherry received the certifica-

tion in 2021 2. An international eco-level tag- considered as the cleanest

beaches across the world 3. Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE) France

1st edition of ” Himalayan Film Festival 2021 = 1. Will begin from 24 to 28 September at Leh, Ladakh 2. Organ- ised by the Administration of Union Territory of Ladakh + Directorate of Film Festivals, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India 3. A part of the celebration of ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ 4. 12 Himalayan states and UTs

Geographical Indication (GI) tag = 1. Manipur’s Hathei chilli and Tamenglong Orange gets GI tag 2. The Hathei chilly works as a good anti-oxidant and possesses high calcium and Vitamin C levels 3. The Tamenglong mandarin orange is bigger in size, weighing 232.76 grams on average.

Matthew Henson = 1. Lunar Crater Named After Matthew Henson by International Astronomical Union (IAU) 2.  A Black man who was one of the first people who stand at the very top of the world, in 1909 3. IAU is non-govern- mental organisations, founded in 1919, headquarter in Paris 4. The objective of IAU- advancing astronomy in all aspects such as promoting astronomical research, outreach, education, and development

Jungle Nama = 1. An audiobook 2. Released by Amitav Ghosh 3. Jungle Nama evokes the wonder of the Sundar- ban through its poetry, accompanied by stunning artwork by the renowned artist Salman Toor

Pankaj Advani = 1. Star Indian cueist 2. Grabbed his 24th World title when he triumphed at the IBSF 6-Red Snooker World Cup with a victory over Pakistan’s Babar Masih in the final

Government e Marketplace (GeM) = 1. Winner of CIPS Excellence in Procurement Awards 2021 (CIPS Awards) 2. In Best Use of Digital Technology category 3. Awards are conducted under the aegis of The Chartered Institute of Procurement & Supply (CIPS), London 4. CIPS is a global not-for-profit organisation 5. GeM is a one-stop National Public Procurement Portal to facilitate online procurement

World’s Highest EV Charging Station = 1. Electric vehicle charging station 2. Kaza village of Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh 3. The aim of this initiative is to check vehicular pollution and promote electric vehicles for a clean and green environment in the region Antyodaya Divas = 1. 25 September 2. To mark the birth anniversary of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya 3. The day was declared by the Modi Government on September 25, 2014

Judima Wine Rice = 1. A homemade rice wine of Assam’s Dimasa tribe

  1. Become the first traditional brew in all of the northeast to bag a Geographical Indication (GI) tag 3. Second product from the hill districts of Karbi Anglong and Dima Hasao to get GI tag 4. Manipur’s most famous Hathei chilli and Tamenglong orange were awarded the GI Tag Naga Cucumber = 1. Nagaland 2. Geographical identification (GI) tags
  2. Nagaland has the fifth-highest cultivation of this fruit area-wise and ranks third in production

Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize = 1. For science and technology 2. Announced during the 80th foundation day of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) 3. To scientists below 45 years of age for their contributions in biology, chemistry, mathematics, physics, medicine, engineering and earth, atmosphere, ocean and planetary sciences

Cyclone Gulab = 1. Odisha and Andhra Pradesh 2. Made landfall over Northwest and adjoining West-central Bay of Bengal 3. Cyclone Gulab was named by Pakistan

Amazon Future Engineer Programme = 1. Launched in India by E-com- merce giant, Amazon India 2. It will enable access to quality computer science education as well as career opportunities for students from underrepresented and underserved communities 3. In first Year Amazon aims to enable and deliver learning opportunities to about 1 lakh students from 900 government and aided schools in seven states of India

Hwasong-8 = 1. A new hypersonic missile of North Korea 2. Successfully tested 3. The missile was one of the five most important new weapons systems laid out by North Korea in the five-year military development plan 4. Hypersonic missiles fly at lower altitudes compared to ballistic weapon systems