• Green Term Loan = 1. NTPC Renewable Energy (NTPC-REL), a subsidiary of NTPC, has signed its first Green Term Loan agreement 2. For installation of Solar Projects in Rajasthan & Gujarat 3. A green loan is a form of financing that seeks to enable and empower businesses to finance projects which have a distinct environmental impact
The GDP growth projection for India in three fiscal years as per World Bank is as follows:
• 2021-22 (FY22): 8.3%
• 2022-23 (FY23): 7.5%
• 2023-24 (FY24): 6.5%
• Air India airline = 1. Tata Group, the progenitor of the Air India airline, reclaimed it, nearly 60 years after it was nationalized 2. Tata Sons bid ₹180 billion for the government’s 100% stake in Air India 3. The airline, which was formed by the Tatas as a mail carrier in 1932
• World Bank = 1. Projects Indian GDP to grow at 8.3% in FY22 2. The World Bank said in its update on South Asia, titled ‘Shifting Gears: Digitization and Services-led Development
• World Investor Week 2021 = 1. October 04-10 2. International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) 3. An initiative promoted by the IOSCO to raise awareness about the importance of investor education and protection and highlight the various initiatives of securities regulators in these two critical areas
• Palk Bay scheme = 1. Union Government 2. Increasing the unit cost of deep-sea fishing vessels from Rs 80 L to Rs 1.3 Cr under the Palk Bay scheme 3. To make it more attractive to fisher folk 4. The Scheme, “Diversification of Trawl Fishing Boats from Palk Straits into Deep Sea Fishing Boats”, was launched in 2017 5. Launched as part of the umbrella Blue Revolution Scheme 6. It is a Tamil Nadu-specific scheme aimed at providing 2,000 vessels in three years to fishermen of the State 7. Marine Fisheries Bill- proposes to only grant licenses to vessels registered under the Merchant Shipping Act, 1958, to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)
Unchanged Policy Rates
• Repo Rate - 4%.
• Reverse Repo Rate - 3.35%.
• Marginal Standing Facility (MSF) - 4.25%.
• Bank Rate- 4.25%.
• Monetary Policy Report (MPR) = 1. Released by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), for the month of October 2021 2. Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth for 2021-22 has been retained at 9.5% 3. Revised the projection for Consumer Price Index (CPI) inflation to 5.3% from 5.7% in August 2021
• Sovereign Credit Ratings = 1. Rating agency Moody's has changed India's sovereign rating outlook to “Stable" from “Negative" 2. Affirmed the country's rating at “Baa3" 3. Baa3 rating is the lowest investment grade, just a notch above junk status (Speculative) 4. Sovereign Credit Rating (SCR) is an independent assessment of the creditworthiness of a country or sovereign entity
• Power Finance Corporation = 1. Government has accorded the 'Maharatna' status to state-owned Power Finance Corporation (PFC) 2. PFC has become the 11th public sector enterprise to get the ‘Maharatna’ status 3. Maharatna” Status- The Maharatna dispensation was ushered in by the Union government for mega Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs) 4. To become global giants (introduced in 2010) 5. “Maharatna” status is granted to a company which has recorded more than Rs. 5,000 crore of net profit for three consecutive years 6.PFC- 1986, largest infrastructure finance company dedicated to the power sector
• An intergovernmental economic organisation
• Founded to stimulate economic progress and world trade
• Founded: 1961.
• Headquarters: Paris, France.
• Total Members: 36.
• India is not a member, but a key economic partner.
• Global Minimum Tax Deal = 1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2. A global deal to ensure big companies pay a Global Minimum Tax (GMT) rate of 15% has been agreed by 136 countries (including India) 3. GMT is tailored to address the low effective rates of tax shelled out by some of the world’s biggest corporations
• India’s foreign exchange reserves = 1. As per RBI data, increased by USD 2.039 billion in the first week of October 2021 2. Now stands at USD 639.516 billion 3. Foreign exchange reserves- Assets held on reserve by the central bank in foreign currencies are called as foreign exchange reserves, used to influence monetary policy and back liabilities 4. It includes any foreign money held by a central bank, for instance, U.S. Federal Reserve Bank
• G7 Digital Trade Principles = 1. The Group of Seven (G7) wealthy nations agreed on a joint set of principles to govern cross-border data use and digital trade 2. Digital Trade- trade in goods and services that is either enabled or delivered digitally 3. G7 Digital Trade Principles- Open Digital Markets, Cross Border Data Flows, Safeguards for Workers, Consumers, and Businesses, Digital Trading Systems, and Fair and Inclusive Global Governance 4. The deal is a first step in reducing trade barriers and could lead to a common rulebook of digital trade
• Sovereign Gold Bond Scheme = 1. The central government announced the calendar for Sovereign Gold Bonds (SGB) 2. It will be issued in four tranches, from October 2021 to March 2022 3. Launched in November 2015 4. Objective- to reduce the demand for physical gold and shift a part of the domestic savings - used for the purchase of gold - into financial savings 5. The Gold Bonds are issued as Government of India Stock under the Government Securities (GS) Act, 2006
• India-ADB = 1. The Government of India and Asian Development Bank (ADB) signed a $4.5 million project readiness financing (PRF) 2. The loan agreement will support project preparation and design activities for improving urban mobility in the capital city, Aizawl in the state of Mizoram 3. The PRF loan will help in conducting feasibility studies to prioritize projects that are identified in the CMP
• SAMBHAV = 1. Launched by Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises (MSME) 2. To promote engagement of the youth in promoting entrepreneurship 3. Students from different colleges/ITIs from all parts of the country will be encouraged by 130 field offices of the Ministry to take up entrepreneurship
• Green Day Ahead Market (GDAM) = 1. Launched by Union Minister of Power & New and Renewable Energy 2. New market segment at the Indian Energy Exchange 3. It is a marketplace for trading renewable power on a day-ahead basis 4. It will operate in an integrated way with the conventional day-ahead market
Indian Energy Exchange
• Indian Energy Exchange is the first and largest energy exchange in India providing a nationwide, automated trading platform for physical delivery of electricity, Renewable Energy Certificates, and Energy Saving Certificates.
Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act (RERA)
• An act passed by the Parliament in 2016 came into effect fully from 1st May 2017.
• The Act establishes Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) in each state for regulation of the real estate sector and also acts as an adjudicating body for speedy dispute resolution.
• It seeks to protect home-buyers as well as help boost investments in the real estate sector by bringing efficiency and transparency in the sale/purchase of the real estate.
• SWAMIH Fund = 1. SWAMIH- Special Window for Affordable & Mid-Income Housing fund 2. Made its first complete exit from an investment made for the completion of a residential project in Mumbai 3. Set up as a Category-II AIF (Alternate Investment Fund) debt fund registered with SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India), launched in 2019 4. The Sponsor of the Fund is the Secretary, Department of Economic Affairs, and Ministry of Finance, on behalf of the Government of India 5. Eligibility- The real estate projects seeking last-mile funding from SWAMIH must be the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act (RERA)-registered, they must also fall under the ‘Affordable and Middle Income Project’ category 6. It helps unlock liquidity in the real estate sector and provides a boost to core industries.
• “Dairy Sahakar” scheme = 1. Launched at Anand, Gujarat during a function organised by Amul to celebrate the 75th Foundation Year of Amul 2. The scheme will be implemented by National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) under the Ministry of Cooperation 3. It will supplement the existing efforts of strengthening the dairy sector in the country, doubling the farmer’s income as well as realizing the vision of ‘from cooperation to prosperity
World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA)
• Headquarter : Geneva, Switzerland
• Founded: 1995
• An international Non-governmental organization.
• Established by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
• Acts as a forum for investment promotion agencies (IPA).
• Provides networking and promotes best practices in investment promotion.
• Apple Festival = 1. Union Agriculture Minister, Narendra Singh Tomar and Lt Governor, Manoj Sinha has virtually inaugurated Apple Festival 2. Organized for the first time in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir 3. It will provide a better platform for apple growers and other stakeholders 4. With an annual production of more than 2 million metric tonnes, apple from J&K contributes to 87% of the national production 5. It is linked to the livelihood of about 30% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir
• Invest India = 1. A young startup within the Government of India 2. Elected as the President of the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies (WAIPA) for 2021-2023 3. Invest India is the National Investment Promotion and Facilitation Agency to help investors looking for investment opportunities and options in India
• Innovations for You = 1. NITI Aayog launches “Innovations for You” Digi-Book 2. The sector in focus in this Digi-book is Healthcare 3. An initiative of Niti Aayog to share success stories of Atal Innovation Mission’s Startups in different domains 4. A compilation of 45 health tech start-ups
• Tax Inspectors without Borders Programme = 1. Launched by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2. In Seychelles 3. India has been chosen as the Partner Administration and has provided Tax Expert for this programm 3. India aims to aid Seychelles in strengthening its tax administration by transferring technical know-how and skills
• CICA 6th Foreign Ministers Meeting = 1. Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures (CICA) 2. In Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan 3.Vaccine Maitri- a major diplomatic effort to gift and supply made-in-India vaccines to low-income and developing countries globally
• UN Human Rights Council = 1. India got re-elected to the UN Human Rights Council for 2022-24 terms 2. This decision was taken in the 76th session of the UN General Assembly 3. Assembly took place for 18 new members of the UN Human Rights Council
• Northern Ireland Protocol = 1. Designed to prevent checks across the border between Northern Ireland (US) and the Republic of Ireland (EU), following Brexit 2. Came into force in the beginning of 2021 3. Goods entering Northern Ireland from Scotland, England or Wales would be inspected
International Energy Agency
• An autonomous Intergovernmental Organisation.
• Established in 1974 in Paris, France.
• Energy policies-economic development, energy security, and environmental protection.
• IEA Clean Coal Centre-providing independent information and analysis on how coal can become a cleaner source of energy
• Major Reports-World Energy Outlook Report, World Energy Investment Report, World Energy Statistics, World Energy Balances, Energy Technology Perspectives, India Energy Outlook Report.
• International Energy Agency (IEA) = 1. IEA has invited India to become its full-time member 2. India is the world’s third-largest energy consumer 3. India became an Associate member of IEA in March 2017 4. IEA’s Membership- 30 member countries, eight association countries 5. A candidate country to the IEA must be a member country of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
• Black Sea = 1. US Defence Secretary has urged more defence cooperation among friendly Black Sea countries amid Russia “militarisation” of the region 2. Black Sea is located between Eastern Europe and Western Asia 3. It is also connected to the Sea of Azov by the Strait of Kerch 4. Bordering countries- Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, and Romania
• New Quad = 1. The Foreign Ministers of India, the US, Israel, and the UAE concluded a virtual meeting 2. It is a strong manifestation of the changes in West Asian geopolitics and the formation of another Quad-like grouping in the Middle East 3. India’s involvement in this new grouping reflects a shift in its foreign policy
• New border law of China = 1. China’s legislature has adopted a new border law that calls on the state and military to safeguard the territory and “combat any acts” that undermine China’s territorial claims 2. It stipulates that the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the People’s Republic of China are sacred and inviolable 3. China has a 22,100-kilometer land border with 14 countries; It has resolved boundary disputes with 12 neighbours 4. India-China border disputes cover 3,488-km along the Line of Actual Control, the China-Bhutan dispute covers about 400 km.
• Declaration for Uighur Muslims = 1. 43 countries have signed a declaration, calling on China to ensure full respect for the rule of law for the Muslim Uighur community in Xinjiang 2. Similar declarations in 2019 and 2020 condemned China for its policies in Xinjiang 3. China has long denied accusations of ethnic cleansing 4. The Indian government has maintained near silence on the Uighur crisis 5. The Uighurs are a predominantly Muslim minority Turkic ethnic group, whose origins can be traced to Central and East Asia
• India-Kyrgyzstan = 1. Held their first strategic dialogue in New Delhi 2. Both the countries agreed to enhance security & defence cooperation 3. Both are facing threat and challenges due to situation in Afghanistan
• Barbados = 1. The Caribbean Island called Barbados, in a bid to become a republic has elected it’s first-ever president 2. This move will remove Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II as head of state of Barbados 3. Sandra Mason, who is the current governor-general of the island, will swear in as president on November 30, 2021 4. Barbados is an island country, located in Lesser Antilles of the West Indies
• Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) = 1. European Union (EU) is set to resume negotiations for a BTIA 2. The BTIA talks have been suspended since 2013 3. India and EU had launched talks for having a wide-ranging Free Trade Agreement (FTA), officially called broad-based BTIA, long ago in 2007 4. To encompass trade in goods, services and investments 5. The EU was India’s largest trading partner in goods 2019-20, ahead of China and the US, with total trade close to USD 90 billion
• Bangabandhu Sambad Kendra = 1. Inaugurated by I&B Minister of Bangladesh at the Kolkata Press Club 2. On the occasion of the golden jubilee of the independence of Bangladesh as well as the birth centenary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman 3. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was a Bangladeshi politician, statesman and Founding Father of Bangladesh, served as the first President of Bangladesh 4. Later he served as Prime Minister of Bangladesh from 1971 until his assassination in 1975 5. He is called as “Bangabandhu” by the people of Bangladesh
• FATF Grey list = 1. Global terror financing watchdog Financial Action Task Force (FATF) has retained Pakistan on its ‘Grey List’ of countries 2. FATF president Marcus Pleyer also said that three new countries Turkey, Jordan, and Mali have also been added to the Grey List 3. Pakistan was placed on the Grey List by the FATF in June 2018 4. Due to its placing on Grey List, it has become increasingly difficult for Pakistan to get financial aid from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB), and the European Union
• Ecuador = 1. President Guillermo Lasso has declared a 60-day state of emergency 2. Due to the rise in violent drug crimes 3. President Lasso has pointed to drug trafficking and consumption as the main drivers behind an increase in murders, home burglary, thefts of vehicles and goods, and muggings 4. Ecuador is a transit country for cocaine smuggled from neighbouring Peru and Colombia 5. Ecuador Capital: Quito
Science & Technology
• Indian Astronomical Observatory (IAO) = 1. Located at Hanle near Leh in Ladakh, becoming one of the promising observatory sites globally 2. World’s highest sites for optical, infrared and gamma-ray telescopes 3. Hanle site is as dry as the Atacama Desert in Chile, has around 270 clear nights in a year
• NASA’s Psyche Mission = 1. Set to send to a giant asteroid called Psyche, which could be the frozen remains of molten core of a bygone world 2. Orbits around the Sun in main asteroid belt, in between Mars and Jupiter 3. NASA will send its Psyche Mission in August 2022 launch 4. This is the first mission to explore an asteroid with a surface comprising of substantial amounts of metal rather than rock or ice
• New Biodegradable Polymer = 1. Developed by using Guar Gum, and Chitosan 2. A guar gum-chitosan composite film, a cross-linked polysaccharide 3. Developed with the help of solution casting method 4. To help effectively deal with the menace of piling non-biodegradable packaging materials
• Mosquirix = 1. RTS,S/AS01, trade name Mosquirix, First Malaria Vaccine 2. The World Health Organisation (WHO) endorsed the world's First Malaria Vaccine 3. An injectable vaccine targeting P. falciparum, the most prevalent malaria strain in Africa 4. It was developed by British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline in 1987
• Silicosis = 1. In India, countless workers engaged in mines, construction and factories are silently dying of exposure to dust- better referred to as silicosis 2. It can be described as an occupational disease or hazard 3. Silica (SiO2/silicon dioxide) is a crystal-like mineral found in abundance in sand, rock, and quartz
• Katol Meteorite = 1. Some researchers studied a meteorite from Katol, Maharashtra which was from the meteor shower of 2012 2. Initial studies revealed that the host rock was mainly composed of olivine, an olive-green mineral 3. Studying the meteorite could also tell us more about how our Earth evolved from being a magma ocean to a rocky planet
• Intermediate-Mass Black Holes = 1. Scientists from Chennai Mathematical Institute and Ors. have analysed data from the LIGO-VIRGO observatories 2. Estimated the fraction of the binary Black Hole mergers detected so far that show potential to form Intermediate-Mass Black Holes 3. Black Hole-A point in space where the matter is so compressed as to create a gravity field from which even light cannot escape
• Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) solution = 1. Indigenously developed 2. Government has inaugurated C-DOT’s (Centre for Development of Telematics) Quantum Communication Lab 3. QKD also called Quantum Cryptography 4. A mechanism to develop secure communication 5. It provides a way of distributing and sharing secret keys that are necessary for cryptographic protocols 6. Cryptography - study of secure communications techniques 7. In the QKD, encryption keys are sent as ‘qubits’ (or quantum bits) in an optical fiber
• Nuri = 1. South Korea’s First Homegrown Space Rocket 2. This is the first rocket completely developed and built in South Korea 3. It failed to successfully deploy a test satellite into orbit 4. It is a 47-meter rocket that was lifted off, with bright yellow fire shooting from the engines 5. The rocket was launched from Naro Space Center, South Korea
Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP)
• The Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978.
• As Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
• In 1985, the Programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme (UIP).
• Objectives of the Programme:
Rapidly increasing immunization coverage,
Improving the quality of services,
Establishing a reliable cold chain system to the health facility level,
Introducing a district-wise system for monitoring of performance, and
Achieving self-sufficiency in vaccine production.
• Nationwide Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Drive = 1. The Union Health Minister has launched a nationwide expansion of Pneumococcal 13-valent Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) 2. To reduce fewer than 5 mortalities caused due to pneumonia 3. Launched under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) as a part of ‘Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’ 4. Pneumococcal Disease is a bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, sometimes known as pneumococcus 5. In India, around 16% of deaths among children occur due to pneumonia 6. Pneumonia is contagious
Deep Ocean Mission
• It was approved in June 2021 by the (MoES).
• It aims to explore the deep ocean for resources, develop deep-sea technologies for sustainable use of ocean resources
• It will support the Blue Economy Initiatives of the Indian Government.
• The cost of the Mission has been estimated at Rs. 4,077 crore over a five-year period and will be implemented in phases.
• Samudrayaan Mission = 1. The Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) has launched India’s first manned ocean mission “Samudrayaan” in Chennai 2. India joined the elite club of nations such as the US, Russia, France, Japan, and China to have niche technology and vehicles to carry out subsea activities 3. India’s first unique manned ocean mission 4. It will send three persons in a manned submersible vehicle MATSYA 6000 to a depth of 6000 metres 5. It is a part of the Rs 6000-crores Deep Ocean Mission 6. MATSYA 6000- An indigenously developed manned submersible vehicle, It will facilitate the MoES in conducting deep ocean exploration of resources such as gas hydrates, polymetallic manganese nodules, hydro-thermal sulfides
• Meta = 1. Facebook Inc. has changed its name and logo to Meta Platforms Inc. 2. To reflect its commitment to develop the new surround-yourself technology called “metaverse” 3. The social network will still be called as Facebook 4. Rebranding of the company is part of its big plan to develop a virtual world and to bring the “apps and technologies of company under one new company brand” 5. The metaverse is sort of internet brought to life and are rendered in 3D 6. A “virtual environment” wherein people can go inside, instead of just looking at on the screen
• Deep Dive Online Training Programme = 1. Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) 2. Aim of strengthening cyber security ecosystem in India 3. A part of the series of workshops that are organised by National e-Governance Division under the Cyber Surakshit Bharat initiative 4. This programme will help the CISOs 5. CISOs are engaged in gap analysis of the cyber security within the organisation 6. Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative was launched by the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology (MeitY) in January 2018
• World’s Largest Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Plant = 1. Inaugurated in South Korea 2. Shinincheon Bitdream Fuel Cell Power Plant 3. The power plant is operated by South Korea’s independent power production company, POSCO Energy and Doosan Fuel Cell
Polity & Governance
• DigiSaksham Programme = 1. Jointly launched by Union Labour Ministry and Microsoft India 2. A digital skilled platform — DigiSaksham — to enhance youth employability 3. Free of cost training in digital skills to more than 3 lakh youths in the first year 4. Priority will be given to the job-seekers of semi-urban areas, including those who have lost their jobs due to the Covid-19 pandemic 5. Implemented by- Aga Khan Rural Support Programme India (AKRSP-I)
• SACRED Portal = 1. Senior Able Citizens for Re-Employment in Dignity (SACRED) 2. An online employment exchange platform to cater to senior citizens seeking job opportunities 3. Developed by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 4. 1st October- International Day of Older Persons 5. SAGE (Seniorcare Aging Growth Engine) Portal- a “one-stop access” of elderly care products and services by credible start-ups
• Landslide and Flood Early Warning System = 1. Council of Scientific and Industrial Research -National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR-NGRI) 2. Launched an ‘Environmental Seismology’ group to develop a ‘Landslide and Flood Early Warning System’ 3. For the Himalayan region 4. Early Warning System- based on real-time monitoring with dense seismological networks, enables a complete spatiotemporal tracking of the entire disaster sequence
• Jal Jeevan Mission App = 1. Launched by PM on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti 2. Mobile application will provide details of water infrastructure 3. Jal Shakti ministry has been maintaining a JJM dashboard 4. Jal Jeevan Mission- Launched in 2019, it envisages supply of 55 litres of water per person per day to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024
• Swachh Bharat Mission-Urban (SBM-U 2.0) = 1. Prime Minister launched the second phase 2. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) is the nodal ministry for the scheme 3. Safe containment, transportation, disposal of faecal sludge, and septage from toilets 4. It will be implemented over five years from 2021 to 2026 5. SBM-U first phase was launched on 2nd October 2014 aiming at making urban India Open Defecation Free (ODF)
• AMRUT Mission = 1. Prime Minister launched the second phase 2. Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT 2.0) 3. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) is the nodal ministry 4. Aims to provide 100% coverage of water supply to all households in around 4,700 ULBs (Urban Local Bodies) 5. It is the continuation of the AMRUT mission launched in June 2015
• Swadesh Darshan Scheme = 1. Tourism Ministry 2. Ministry sanctioned 5 projects of Rs 325.53 crore for Buddhist circuit development 3. Swadesh Darshan, a Central Sector Scheme, was launched in 2014 -15 4. Under the scheme, fifteen thematic circuits have been identified
• ‘Swechha’ programme = 1. Launched by Andhra government 2. To tackle the stigma attached to menstruation, prioritize female personal hygiene, and encourage a healthy dialogue of information 3. The state government will provide good quality branded sanitary napkins to female students at government educational institutions free of cost
• Cyber security guidelines = 1. The government released cyber security guidelines for the power sector 2. The first time, a comprehensive guideline has been formulated for the power sector 3. Lays down a cyber assurance framework 4. Mechanisms for security threat early warning
• Department of Food and Public Distribution = 1. Developed an application ecosystem for integration of procurement portals of all state governments 2. It allows the integration of procurement portals of all state governments having Minimum Threshold Parameters (MTPs) 3. For monitoring and strategic decision making
• SVAMITVA Scheme = 1. Survey of Villages Abadi and Mapping with Improvised Technology in Village Areas 2. PM distributes 1.7 lakh e-property cards in M.P 3. A central sector scheme 4. Implemented by the “Ministry of Panchayati Raj 5. Implemented with the aim of providing property rights to residents across rural areas 6. Central government had launched the SVAMITVA scheme on April 24, 2021 marking the National Panchayati Raj Day
• EWS Quota = 1. The Supreme Court (SC) has questioned the methodology adopted by the government in fixing Rs. 8 lakh as the annual income limit to identify the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) 2. For providing 10% quota in public jobs and educational institutions 3. Introduced under the 103rd Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2019 by amending Articles 15 and 16
• PM Gati Shakti Scheme = 1. The government of India has launched the ambitious Gati Shakti scheme or National Master Plan for multi-modal connectivity plan 2. Aim- To ensure integrated planning and implementation of infrastructure projects in the next four years00 3. Focus- on expediting works on the ground, saving costs and creating jobs 4. It intends to bring together 16 infrastructure related Ministries
• National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) = 1. The 28th anniversary of the National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) - observed on 12th October 2021 2. Watchdog of human rights in the country 3. Established on 12th October, 1993, under Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 4. It has all the powers of a civil court and its proceedings have a judicial character
• Right to Protest = 1. The Supreme Court said farmers had the right to protest, but roads cannot be blocked indefinitely 2. Right to Protest is not an explicit right under Fundamental rights 3. it can be derived from the Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression under Article 19
• SAKSHAM Centres = 1. As part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav, a total of 152 Centre for Financial Literacy & Service Delivery (SAKSHAM Centres) across 77 districts of 13 states were launched 2. Under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana - National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) of the Ministry of Rural Development 3. To provide financial literacy & facilitate delivery of financial services 4. A mobile & web-based application called “SAKSHAM” has also been developed 5. DAY-NRLM- It is a centrally sponsored programme, launched by the Ministry of Rural Development in June 2011, To eliminate rural poverty
• National Steering Committee (NSC) = 1. Formed for the implementation of NIPUN Bharat Mission 2. NIPUN (National Initiative for Proficiency in Reading with Understanding and Numeracy) Bharat Scheme was launched as part of the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 3. Roles NSC- To oversee the progress of the National Mission on Foundational Literacy and Numeracy, To prepare and approve a National Action Plan, To review programmatic and financial norms periodically
• Indian Telegraph Right of Way (Amendment) Rules, 2021 = 1. Indian government notified 2. Incorporate “uniform procedure for establishing over ground telegraph line in Indian Telegraph Right of Way Rules, 2016” 3. Rules have also fixed the amount of one-time compensation for establishing over ground telegraph line will at a maximum of Rs 1,000 per km 4. These amendments will ease permission procedure related to RoW for establishing and augmenting digital communications infrastructure in India 5. Right of Way (RoW) in telecommunication- RoW is the legal right, allowing online filing of application
• Shri Dhanwantri Generic Medical Store Scheme = 1. Launched by Chhattisgarh Govt. 2. To provide low-cost generic medicines and enable seamless healthcare services to the vulnerable people of the state 3. Chhattisgarh Governor: Anusuiya Uikey
• India’s 1st State-Wildlife DNA testing analysis lab = 1. Inaugurated in Nagpur 2. India’s 1st State government-owned Wildlife DNA testing analysis laboratory at Regional Forensic Science Laboratory (RFSL) in Nagpur, Maharashtra 3. At present, there are 2 Wildlife DNA testing laboratories at Dehradun & Hyderabad, which are fully owned by the Central Government, whereas the newly launched is the 1st in India to be owned by a state government 4. Maharashtra Governor: Bhagat Singh Koshyar
• Mukhyamantri Ration Aapke Dwar Yojana = 1. Government of Madhya Pradesh (MP) 2. Under this scheme, the ration will be provided at the doorstep of the villagers where there is no Fair Price Shops (FPS) 3. To ensure proper ration supply for poor tribal families in each village
• ‘Prashasan Gaon ke Sang’ Campaign = 1. Launched by Rajasthan Government 2. To provide local access to government services in the remotest villages of the state 3. Officials from 22 Departments of the local administration will reach out to the rural parts of every gram panchayat to offer on-spot solutions to the applicants
• ‘Mera Ghar Mere Naam’ scheme = 1. Launched by Punjab Govt. 2. Aims to confer proprietary rights on the people living in the houses within the ‘Lal Lakir’ of villages and the cities 3. Lal Lakir- The land area which is a part of the village habitation and is used for non-agriculture purposes only 4. The state government will undertake drone surveys of residential properties, both in rural and urban areas for digital mapping 5. All eligible residents would be given the property cards
• Deputy Speaker Election = 1. An MLA from UP was elected Deputy Speaker of the Uttar Pradesh Assembly 2. Article 93 of the Constitution provides for the election of both the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Lok Sabha 3. Article 178 contains the corresponding position for Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of a state 4. The institutions of Speaker and Deputy Speaker originated in India in 1921 under the provisions of the Government of India Act of 1919 (Montague-Chelmsford Reforms) 5. Deputy Speaker remains in office usually during the life of the Lok Sabha (5 years)
• Registration of Births and Deaths Act (RBD), 1969 = 1. Recently, the Centre has proposed amendments to the Registration of Births and Deaths Act (RBD), 1969 2. Registration of Births and Deaths in India is mandatory with the enactment of Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD), Act 1969 3. Proposed Amendments- Chief Registrar to maintain Unified Data, Special Sub-Registrars
• Marine Protected Areas in Antarctica = 1. India has extended its support for protecting the Antarctic environment 2. For co-sponsoring the proposal of the European Union for designating East Antarctica and the Weddell Sea as Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) 3. The Southern Ocean also called Antarctic Ocean 4. Marine Protected Areas- A marine area that provides protection for all or part of the natural resources it contains
• Wildlife Week 2021 = 1. Lieutenant Governor of Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir, Manoj Sinha, inaugurated the Wildlife Week 2021 on October 2, 2021 2. At Sher-e-Kashmir International Convention Centre (SKICC) in Srinagar 3. A sincere effort that raise awareness among people for the protection of wildlife resources
• Tiger rallies = 1. Union Environment Minister Bhupender Yadav started off tiger rallies in 18 tiger range States in India 2. Rallies were virtually kicked off in three tiger reserves namely- Biligiri Ranganathaswamy Temple (BRT) Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, Navegaon Nagzira Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra and Sanjay Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh 3. Tiger Rallies were started across 51 reserves
• New Tiger Reserve- Chhattisgarh =1. Combined areas of the Guru Ghasidas National Park and Tamor Pingla Wildlife Sanctuary 2. Designated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)- a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change, established in 2005 3. Fourth Tiger Reserve in Chhattisgarh, after the Udanti-Sitanadi, Achanakmar, and Indravati Reserves
• High Ambition Coalition for Nature and People = 1. India joined the HAC for Nature and People 2. An intergovernmental group championing a global deal for nature and people 3. It can halt the accelerating loss of species, and protect vital ecosystems that are the source of our economic security 4. It was launched in 2019 by Costa Rica, France, and Britain 5. To promote an international agreement to protect at least 30% of the world's land and ocean by 2030 6. To manage the planet sustainably with no net loss of natural habitats
• Javan Gibbon = 1. Indonesia is taking steps to protect the habitat of Javan Gibbon 2. It is endangered by climate change and human encroachment and also hunted for both meat and pet trade 3. It is endemic to the Indonesian island of Java 4. It was declared Critically Endangered in 2004 but since has recovered to status of Endangered as per IUCN criterion 5. IUCN: Endangered (EN) 6. CITES: Appendix I
• World Migratory Bird Day 2021 = 1. 09 October 2. Every year, World Migratory Bird Day (WMBD) is officially celebrated twice in a year since it started in 2006 3. The theme for 2021 WMBD is “Sing, Fly, Soar – Like a Bird!” 4. The day is observed to spread awareness for the need to conserve migratory birds and their habitats
• Right to Clean Environment = 1. United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) 2. Voted for recognising a clean, healthy, and sustainable environment as a Universal Human Right 3. If recognised by all, the right will be the first of its kind 4. The right to a clean environment is rooted in the 1972 Stockholm Declaration- Magna Carta of human-environment
• Lukha river = 1. Meghalaya 2. Meghalaya Government has claimed that a detoxing pilot project has brought the Lukha River back from the dead 3. It was contaminated due to acid mine drainage and run-off from the coal mines 4. The phytoremediation method was used to detoxify the river- Algae was used to remove major toxic contents from the water 5. Lukha River is located in the southern part of east Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
• Flower Scorpionfish = 1. A fish species named Flower Scorpionfish (Hoplosebastes Armatus) which was only found in the Pacific Ocean has been discovered in the Indian Ocean 2. Rise in the temperature of sea water due to global warming might have induced the migration of this species from different regions
Biodiversity in India
• India comprises only 2.4% of the land area of the world
• It accounts for 7-8% of all recorded species
• It includes more than 45,000 species of plants and 91000 species of animals
• Vision Plan: 2021-2031 = 1. Released by Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change 2. For Indian zoos 3. Released during a two-day National Conference for zoo directors & veterinarians in Gujarat 4. Organized by Central Zoo Authority and was hosted by Sardar Patel Zoological Park, Kevadia in Gujarat 5. Launched with the aim of upgrading Indian zoos to global standards 6. Focuses on conserving local birds and animals too 7. The plan was adopted with the aim of giving a direction towards ex-situ conservation approaches across India
• International E-Waste Day = 1. Observed on 14th October Since 2018 2. To raise awareness about the millions of tonnes of e-waste generated worldwide each year 3. According to the United Nations, by 2021, each person on the planet would produce an average of 7.6 kg of e-waste
• COP26 Climate Conference = 1. United Nations Climate Change Conference will be hosted by the UK 2. 31st October to 12th November 3. According to UNFCCC, COP26 will work towards four goals: Net Zero by 2050, Adapt to Protect Communities and Natural Habitats, Mobilise Finance, and Work Together to Deliver 4. The Conference of Parties comes under the UNFCCC which was formed in 1994 5. 1995: COP1 (Berlin, Germany), 1997: COP 3 (Kyoto Protocol), 2002: COP 8 (New Delhi, India) Delhi Declaration
• Geospatial Energy Map of India = 1. Launched by NITI Aayog 2. A comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Geospatial Energy Map of India 3. It enables visualisation of energy installations such as conventional power plants, oil and gas wells, petroleum refineries, coal fields and coal blocks, district-wise data on renewable energy power plants 4. A GIS is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data
• World Meteorological Congress 2021 = 1. The World Meteorological Congress 2021 has endorsed a Water Declaration 2. It also includes the Water and Climate Coalition 3. It has also approved a new vision and strategy for hydrology 4. Concerns- Only 40% of countries globally have operational early flood and drought warning systems, some 60% of WMO member countries lack hydrological monitoring capabilities 5. Water and Climate Coalition is made for promoting sharing and access to the integrated hydrological, cryosphere, meteorological, and climate information
• Kaziranga National Park = 1. Assam 2. The Central Empowered Committee (CEC), constituted by the Supreme Court, has asked the Assam government to take action on illegal construction in the identified wildlife corridors of the Kaziranga National Park and Tiger Reserve 3. It was declared as a National Park in 1974 4. It has been declared a tiger reserve since 2007 5. It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1985 6. It is recognized as an Important Bird Area by Bird Life International 7. It is the home of the world's most one-horned rhinos 8. National Highway 37 passes through the park area 9. Diphlu River runs through it
• International Solar Alliance (ISA) = 1. The fourth Assembly of ISA was held 2. A total of 108 countries participated in the assembly 3. ISA is an intergovernmental treaty-based organisation 4. ISA was co-founded by India and France during the 2015 climate change conference in Paris 5. ISA is the nodal agency for implementing One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) 6. India has allotted 5 acres of land to the ISA in the National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) campus, Gurugram 7. NISE is an autonomous institution of the Ministry of New and Renewable (MNRE) and is the apex National R&D institution in the field of Solar Energy 8. Highlights of the fourth Assembly- A promise to achieve USD 1 trillion global investments in solar energy by 2030, New ISA programmes launched on management of solar PV panels & battery usage waste and solar hydrogen programme
• Sustainable Transport System Award = 1. Kerala has won the award for the ‘city with the most Sustainable Transport System’ 2. Presented by the Ministry for Housing and Urban Affairs 3. Given in recognition of the transport facilities in various states and Union Territories of India 4. Sustainable Transport- transportation that is 'green' and has a low impact on the environment, balancing our current and future needs
Other Indices Related to Climate Change
• Climate Change Performance Index- Germanwatch, the New Climate Institute, and the Climate Action Network
• Global Climate Risk Index 2021- Germanwatch)
• Environmental Performance Index- Yale University and Columbia University in collaboration with the World Economic Forum
• Hunger Hotspots Report- FAO and WFP
• Children’s Climate Risk Index- UNICEF
• Lake Tahoe = 1. US 2. Drought fueled by climate change has dropped Lake Tahoe below its natural rim and halted flows into the Truckee River 3. Largest alpine lake in North America and the second deepest lake in the US, with Crater Lake in Oregon being the deepest in the US 4. Alpine lakes are lakes or reservoirs at high altitudes, usually over above sea level or above the tree line
• Climate Vulnerability Index = 1. A report titled “Mapping India’s Climate Vulnerability – A District-level Assessment” has been released by the Council on Energy, Environment, and Water (CEEW) 2. Launched the first-of-its-kind Climate Vulnerability Index 3. The index has analysed 640 districts in India and found that 463 of these are vulnerable to extreme floods, droughts, and cyclones 4. The states of Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Bihar are the most vulnerable to extreme climate events
• The Parambikulam Tiger Conservation Foundation (PaTCoF) = 1. Won the “Earth Guardian Award” this was instituted by the NatWest Group 2. PaTCoF is a non-profit organisation under forest department 3. It seeks to facilitate conservation of tiger and biodiversity in the Parambikulam tiger reserve 4. Parambikulam Tiger Reserve- It is a protected area in the Palakkad district of Kerala, lies in the Sungam range of hills in between Anaimalai Hills and Nelliampathy Hills 5. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary- Home to four different tribes of indigenous peoples namely, Malasar, Kadar, Mala Malarsar and Muduvar
• Mullaperiyar Dam = 1. The Supreme Court has directed the Supervisory Committee to take an immediate and firm decision on the maximum water level 2. The Ministry of Jal Shakti has constituted a three-member Supervisory Committee to settle the issue of Mullaperiyar dam between Kerala and Tamil Nadu 3. It is located on the confluence of the Mullayar and Periyar rivers in Kerala’s Idukki district 4. The reservoir is within the Periyar Tiger Reserve 5. Operated and maintained by
• The longest river in the state of Kerala with a length of 244 km.
• Known as the ‘Lifeline of Kerala’ as it is one of the few perennial rivers in the state.
• Originates from the Sivagiri hills of Western Ghats, in Tamil Nadu, and flows through the Periyar National Park.
• Main tributaries- Muthirapuzha, Mullayar, Cheruthoni, Perinjankutti.
• Located in Kerala (168.91 m).
• Stands between the two mountains – Kuravanmala (839 m) and Kurathimala (925 m).
• One of the highest arch dams in Asia and the third tallest arch dam.
• Built on the Periyar River, in the ravine between the Kuravan and Kurathi Hills in Kerala.
• It was constructed and is owned by the Kerala State Electricity Board.
• It supports a 780 MW hydroelectric power station.
• Law to Report Impact of Climate Change = 1. New Zealand 2. The first country to pass laws requiring banks, insurers and investment managers to report the impacts of climate change on their business 3. The new laws will require financial firms to explain 4. The New Zealand government has introduced several policies to lower emissions 5. To make its public sector carbon-neutral by 2025 and buy only zero-emissions public transport buses from the middle of this decade
• Glasgow Glacier = 1. Antarctica 2. The 100-km long body of ice in Antarctica, which has been experiencing rapid melting, was formally named Glasgow after the Glasgow climate summit 3. The 26th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP 26) 4. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 5. Being held in Glasgow, UK 6. 14 glaciers in the Getz Basin of West Antarctica are thinning by an average of 25% between 1994 and 2018 due to climate change 7. The Getz basin is part of Antarctica's largest ice shelf
Indices and Reports
• UNCTAD Digital Economy Report 2021 = 1. UNCTAD noted the Philippines as one among six countries that allow free flow of data across borders 2. Other five countries allowing free-flow of data across border include- Canada, Australia, Mexico, Singapore and the United States
• State of Climate Services Report 2021 = 1. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 2. It focuses on Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) 3. TWS is the sum of all water on the land surface and in the subsurface, i.e. surface water, soil moisture, snow and ice, and groundwater 4. TWS dropped at a rate of 1 cm per year in 20 years (2002-2021) 5. The biggest losses have occurred in Antarctica and Greenland 6. In India, the TWS has been lost at a rate of at least 3 cm per year 7. India is the ‘topmost hotspot of TWS loss’
• Global Climate Risk Index 2021 = 1. Released by international environmental think tank ‘Germanwatch’ 2. Index analyses the extent to which countries and regions have been affected by the impacts of weather-related loss events (storms, floods, heat waves etc.) 3. The 2021 Index does not include data from United States of America 4. 2021 Findings- Mozambique, Zimbabwe as well as the Bahamas were the most affected countries in 2019 5. India has improved its rankings from last year. It is ranked 7th in the 2021 Index as compared to 5th in 2020 Index 6. Germanwatch, based in Bonn and Berlin (Germany), is an independent development and environmental organisation
• Ecological Threat Report 2021 = 1. Released by Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP), an international think tank 2. Ecological Threat Report (ETR) 2021: Understanding ecological threats, resilience and peace 3. Covers 178 independent states and territories 4. The most vulnerable countries are clustered in the Middle East and North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia 5. Global food insecurity has increased by 44% since 2014, affecting 30.4 % of the world's population in 2020 6. By 2040 over 5.4 billion people will live in countries facing extreme water stress
• Global Hunger Index 2021 = 1. India is at 101st position in the Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2021 of 116 countries 2. In 2020 India's position was 94th 3. GHI- Annual Report, Jointly published by Concern Worldwide and Welthungerhilfe 4. Four indicators- Undernourishment, Child Wasting, Child Stunting and Child Mortality
• IMF Annual Report on India = 1. India’s economy is gradually recovering after it was hit hard by two Covid-19 waves 2. Projected India’s economic growth to 9.5 percent for the financial year 2021-2022 3. Headline consumer price-based inflation at 5.6 percent
• World Energy Outlook Report 2021 = 1. Released by International Energy Agency (IEA) 2. Published every year 3. WEO provides critical analysis and insights on trends in energy demand and supply 4. Key points- Renewable energy sources, such as solar, wind, hydropower, and bio-energy, need to form a far bigger share in the rebound in energy investment, this looks at governments’ pledges to achieve net-zero emissions 5. Global average temperature increase would be around 2.1 C by the year 2100
WEO 2021- India Specific Findings
• India will become the most populous nation surpassing China's population this decade.
• India's GDP will be growing faster than China on average over the next three decades.
• In India, over 50 GW of Financially Stressed Coal Assets (NPAs) has created strains in the banking system.
• Coal demand in India is expected to grow by around 30% by 2030.
• Global Food Security (GFS) Index 2021 = 1. India is ranked at 71st position in the Global Food Security (GFS) Index 2021 of 113 countries 2. Designed and constructed by London-based Economist Impact and is sponsored by Corteva Agriscience 3. Published every year 4. It measures the underlying drivers of food security based on the following factors: Affordability, Availability, Quality and Safety, and Natural Resources and Resilience 5. It considers 58 unique food security indicators 6. India’s score improved only by 2.7 points to 57.2 in 2021 from 54.5 in 2012
Initiatives to Reduce Emissions in India
• Shift from Bharat Stage-IV (BS-IV) to Bharat Stage-VI (BS-VI) emission norms.
• Distribution of LED bulbs under the UJALA scheme.
• Formation of International Solar Alliance.
• Launch of the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC).
• Roadmap for Ethanol Blending in India by 2025.
• UNEP Production Gap Report = 1. Released by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2. First launched in 2019, tracks the discrepancy between governments’ planned fossil fuel production and Global production levels are consistent with limiting warming to 1.5°C or 2°C 3. Production gap to achieve the climate goal is the widest for coal 4. The production gap has been fuelled by incremental capital flow towards fossil fuels in the post novel coronavirus disease (Covid-19) recovery phase 5. India’s first NDC (Nationally Determined Contribution), issued in 2016, pledged a 33%-35% reduction in the “emissions intensity” of its economy by 2030
• Emissions Gap Report 2021 = 1. United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 2. GHGs Continue to Rise- Following an unprecedented drop of 5.4 % in 2020, global carbon dioxide emissions are bouncing back to pre-COVID levels 3. New mitigation pledges for 2030 show some progress, but their aggregate effect on global emissions is insufficient 4. The long-term net-zero emissions pledged by 50 countries, covering more than half of global emissions show large ambiguities 5. At the end of the century global warming is estimated at 2.7°C if all unconditional 2030 pledges are fully implemented 6. The current atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are higher than at any time in the last two million years
• Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India Report 2020 = 1. Released by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) 2. The report divides suicides into nine categories — apart from daily wagers, housewives, and people working in the farm sector, the deaths are listed under ‘professionals/salaried persons’, ‘students’, ‘self-employed persons’, ‘retired persons’, and ‘others’ 3. Suicides in India rose 10% from 2019 to an all-time high of 1, 53,052 in the pandemic year of 2020 4. The share of daily wage earners among those who died by suicide has doubled between 2014 and 2020 5. The worst among States continues to be Maharashtra, with 4,006 suicides in the farm sector 6. Poverty and unemployment registered the biggest increase
National Crime Records Bureau
• Headquartered- New Delhi, Set-up in 1986 under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
• To function as a repository of information on crime and criminals.
• Based on the recommendations of the National Police Commission (1977-1981) and the MHA’s Task Force (1985).
• Brings out the annual comprehensive statistics of crime across the country (‘Crime in India’ report).
• The inaugural function of the 2nd CCTNS Hackathon and Cyber Challenge 2020-21 of NCRB was held in New Delhi.
• ‘AUSINDEX’ = 1. India and Australia have participated in the fourth edition of the biennial maritime series ‘AUSINDEX’ 2. Inter-operability, gain from best practices 3. Other exercises- Ex AUSTRA HIND (Bilateral Exercise with Army), EX PITCH BLACK (Australia’s multilateral air combat training exercise) 4. ‘AUSINDEX’ is a major biennial bilateral exercise, first held in India in 2015
• JIMEX-21 = 1. 5th India-Japan Bilateral Maritime Exercise 2. Held in the Arabian Sea 3. JIMEX-21 aims to develop a common understanding of operational procedures and enhance inter-operability through the conduct of a multitude of advanced exercises 3. Ships of the Indian Navy and Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) participated in a joint naval exercise at the Indian Ocean to realize Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP)
• AJEYA WARRIOR = 1. India - UK Joint Company Level Military Training Exercise 2. 6th Edition commenced in Uttarakhand 3. It is part of an initiative to develop interoperability and sharing expertise with friendly foreign nations 4. Other Joint Exercises between India and UK- Navy: Konkan & Air Force: Indradhanush
• 7 New Defence Companies = 1. Dedicated to the nation by the Defence Ministry 2. Carved out of the Ordnance Factory Board (OFB) 3. Munitions India Limited (MIL), Armoured Vehicles Nigam Limited (AVNL), Troop Comforts Limited (TCL), Gliders India Limited (GIL), Armoured Vehicles Nigam Limited (AVANI), Advanced Weapons and Equipment India Limited (AWE India), India Optel Limited (IOL) and Yantra India Limited (YIL) 4. Aims to improve India’s self-reliance in defence preparedness 5. There were 41 Indian Ordnance Factories which now have been converted into 7 Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs)
Other Exercises-India and the US
• Exercise Tiger Triumph (Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief exercise)
• Exercise Vajra Prahar (Special Forces’ Exercise)
• Cope India (Air Force).
• Malabar Exercise (Quadrilateral naval exercise of India, USA, Japan and Australia).
• Red Flag (US’ multilateral air exercise).
• Yudh Abhyas = 1. India and the United States, a 15-day mega military exercise in Alaska 2. Year 2021 will mark the 17th edition of the exercise “Yudh Abhyas” 3. A step towards growing military cooperation between the both the countries
• Exercise MITRA SHAKTI = 1. 8th Edition of joint military exercise between the Indian Army and the Sri Lankan Army 2. Based on counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations in semi-urban terrain 3. Largest bilateral exercise being undertaken by the Sri Lankan Army 4. Other Exercises- Naval exercise (SLINEX)
• Exercise Cambrian Patrol = 1. The Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) of the Indian Army has been awarded a Gold medal in the Cambrian Patrol Exercise, which was held in Wales (the UK) 2. An annual international military patrolling exercise 3. Referred as the ‘Olympics of Military Patrolling’ 4. Aim - to test their leadership, self-discipline, courage, physical endurance, and determination 5. Joint Exercises India and UK- Navy: Konkan, Air Force: Indradhanush, Military: Ajeya Warrior
• Konkan Shakti 2021 = 1. India and the UK started Konkan Shakti 2021, the first-ever tri-services joint exercise 2. It started off the west coast of India 3. To derive mutual benefits from each other’s experiences and also showcase the continuing cooperation between the two countries 4. Other Joint Exercises- Navy: Konkan, Air Force: Indradhanush and Military: Ajeya Warrior
• ABHYAS = 1. High-speed Expendable Aerial Target 2. DRDO successfully flight-tested Abhyas High-speed Expendable Aerial Target (HEAT) from the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur 3. It is powered by a gas turbine engine to sustain a long endurance flight at subsonic speed 4. Equipped with a MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems)-based Inertial Navigation System (INS) for navigation along with the Flight Control Computer (FCC) for guidance and control 5. It will be used as a target for the evaluation of various missile systems
• India-Us Defence Deal = 1. The Ministry of Defence has signed a deal with the US Government for procurement of MK 54 Torpedo and Expendable (Chaff and Flares) for the Indian Navy, under Foreign Military Sale (FMS) 2. Foreign Military Sale (FMS)- U.S. Government’s program for transferring defense articles, services, and training to its international partners and international organizations 3. MK 54 Torpedo is a cigar-shaped, self-propelled underwater missile 4. Launched from a submarine, surface vessel, or airplane and designed for exploding upon contact with the hulls of surface vessels and submarines 5. Chaff is a part of the Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS) is a passive expendable electronic counter measure used for protection of the naval ships from enemy's radar and missile seekers based on radio frequency 6. A flare or decoy flare is also a part of CMDS, used by a plane or helicopter to counter an infrared homing ("heat-seeking") surface-to-air missile or air-to-air missile
• Agni-V = 1. India has successfully test-fired a surface-to-surface ballistic missile 2. Launched from APJ Abdul Kalam Island off Odisha coast 3. It strike the targets up to the range of 5000-km with a very high degree of accuracy 4. The missile uses a three-stage solid-fuelled engine 5. The successful launch of the Agni-5 missile aligns with India’s policy to have a “credible minimum deterrence” 6. Agni-V is an Indian nuclear-capable intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)
• OPV Sarthak = 1. An Offshore Patrol Vessel (OPV), Indian Coast Guard Ship (ICGS) Sarthak has been commissioned and dedicated to the nation at Goa by the Indian Coast Guard 2. It is 4th in the series of five OPVs 3. OPVs are long-range surface ships, capable of operation in maritime zones of India, including island territories with helicopter operation capabilities 4. Designed & built indigenously by M/s Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) 5. 70% indigenous content 6. It has state-of-the-art Navigation and Communication equipment, sensors and machinery 7. It is capable of carrying a twin-engine helicopter 8. It will be deployed extensively for Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) surveillance, Coastal Security and other duties as enshrined in the Coast Guard charter of duties 9. Other OPVs-Sajag, Vigraha, Yard 45006 VAJRA and Varaha
Defence Technologies Imported by India from Israel
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs):
• Searcher: It is a multi-mission tactical Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) for surveillance, target acquisition, artillery adjustment and damage assessment.
• Hermes 900: In December 2018, Adani Defence and Elbit Systems inaugurated the first India-Israel joint venture in defence at Hyderabad.
• Heron: It is a medium-altitude long-endurance UAV system primarily designed to perform strategic actions.
Air Defence Systems
• BARAK: The surface-to-air missile can be deployed as a low-range air defence interceptor. In India, the BARAK version is known as BARAK-8 (for naval vessels).
• Spike: These are the 4th generation Anti-Tank Missiles with a range of up to 4km, which can be operated in fire-and-forget mode.
• These are manufactured by the Rafael Advanced Defence Systems, Israel.
• Crystal Maze: It is an Indian variant of the air-to-surface missile AGM-142A Popeye – jointly developed by the Israeli-based Rafael and US-based Lockheed Martin.
• Search Track and Guidance Radar (STGR): India imported the STGR radar to make INS Kolkata, INS Shivalik and Kamorta-class frigates compatible for deploying BARAK-8 SAM missiles.
• Phalcon: This Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), is also hailed as Indian Air force Force’s “eyes in the skies''.
• Indian Navy Frigate Tushil = 1. The 7th Indian Navy Frigate of P1135.6 class, named Tushil 2. Launched at Yantar Shipyard, Kaliningrad, Russia 3. Designed and built by Russia for the Indian Navy 4. Tushil is a Sanskrit word meaning Protector Shield 5. Project 1135.6 is also known as Talwar Class — a class of guided-missile frigates
• Long-Range (LR) Bomb = 1. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Indian Air Force (IAF) have successfully flight-tested 2. Indigenously developed 3. Release from the IAF fighter aircraft 3. Bomb has been designed & developed by Research Centre Imarat (RCI) in Hyderabad in association with other DRDO laboratories
Research Centre Imarat (RCI)
• RCI is a DRDO laboratory, established in Hyderabad, Telangana.
• Responsible for Research and Development of Missile Systems, advanced Avionics and Guided Weapons for the Indian Armed Forces.
• Established in 1988 by APJ Abdul Kalam.
• U Raja Babu is the current head of RCI.
• A global frontrunner in navigation systems and developing avionics for missiles.
• Leading laboratory that has successfully spearheaded the Medium Range Surface to Air Missile (MRSAM) programme of India & Israel.
• Its field of research is “Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP).
• Yidan Prize = 1. 2021 2. India-based Dr Rukmini Banerji was awarded with the 2021 Yidan prize 3. Presented by Yidan Prize Foundation 4. Dr. Rukmini Banerji is the Chief Executive Officer of ‘Pratham Education Foundation’ 5. Award recognises her work in improving learning outcomes
• I-Drone = 1. Drone-Based Vaccine Delivery Model 2. Launched by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare 3. Drone Response and Outreach in North East (i-Drone) 4. Overcoming the gaps in current vaccine delivery mechanisms
• Kamdhenu Deepawali 2021 campaign = 1.Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog 2. For manufacturing and marketing about 100 Crore Deepak lamps & Laxmi-Ganesh Idols made up of cow-dung 3. This campaign would benefit the Cow Entrepreneurs across India
• Fishwaale App = 1. India’s first e-fish market App 2. Launched in Assam 3. A one-stop solution for aquaculture” that will help both the buyers and sellers
• Wada Kolam rice = 1. A variety of rice widely grown in Wada in the Palghar district 2. Got a ‘Geographical Indication’ tag, which will give it a unique identity as well as wider markets 3. Also known as Zini or Jhini rice
• Alibaug white onion = 1. The famed white onion of Alibag in Maharashtra’s Raigad district 2. Given the Geographical Indication (GI) tag bringing worldwide recognition to its unique sweet taste, no-tears factor, as well as its medicinal properties 3. The soil of Alibaug taluka has low sulphur content
• Arvind Trivedi = 1. Veteran television actor 2. Best known for his role as ‘Raavan’ in Ramayan 3. Passes away
• Economist Gandhi = 1. A book title by Jaithirth Rao, popularly known as Jerry Rao 2. Economist Gandhi: The Roots and the Relevance of the Political Economy of the Mahatma 3. The book examines Mahatma Gandhi’s economic philosophy and his hidden facet personality- thoughts on economics and capitalism
• Indian Air Force Day = 1. Celebrated every year by the Indian Air Force on the 8th of October 2. Indian Air Force was officially established on 8 October 1932 by the British Empire as the Royal Indian Air Force 3. The name was changed to Indian Air Force in 1950
• Mission Kavach Kundal = 1. Launched by the government of Maharashtra 2. A special Covid-19 vaccination drives 3. With the target of inoculating 15 lakh people everyday
Nobel Prizes 2021
Benjamin List and David W.C. MacMillan
Finding an easier and environmentally cleaner way to build molecules that can be used to make compounds, including medicines and pesticides (organocatalysis).
Syukuro Manabe, Klaus Hasselmann and Giorgio Parisi
Understanding of complex physical systems.
David Julius and Ardem Patapoutian
For their work in the field of somatosensation, that is the ability of specialised organs such as eyes, ears and skin to see, hear and feel.
Maria Ressa and Dmitry Muratov
For their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace.
For his uncompromising and compassionate penetration of the effects of colonialism and the fate of the refugee in the gulf between cultures and continents.
David Card, Joshua Angrist and Guido Imbens
Research on wages, jobs
• Indian Sandalwood = 1. Government of India inaugurated a training program on Indian Sandalwood Farming & Management 2. Aims at establishing Sandalwood Technology Innovation centres in the growing states 3. Santalum album, commonly known as Indian Sandalwood, is a dry deciduous forest species native to China, India, Indonesia, Australia, and the Philippines 4. IUCN Red List Status: Vulnerable
• International Day of Rural Women = 1. October 15, every year 2. Theme “Rural women cultivating good food for all” 3. Focuses on gender equality and helps in empowering women in rural areas
• Healthy Smile Mobile App = 1. Launched by AIIMS 2. To raise awareness on maintaining oral hygiene among children 3. An initiative of the Department of Paediatric and Preventive Dentistry, with the help of AIIMS intramural research grant
• Velyat = 1. Iran’s annual Air Defence Drill 2. Both the army and the paramilitary Revolutionary Guard were taking earlier 3. Iran regularly holds such drills in order to assess the troops’ combat reading readiness and demonstrate its military capabilities
• World’s First Self-Driving Train = 1. Launched by Germany 2. Launched in the city of Hamburg 3. The project is part of a 60-million-euro modernisation of the rapid urban rail system of Hamburg
• India’s first smartphone-based eVoting solution = 1. Developed by Telangana 2. Considering the Covid-19 pandemic 3. The system will undergo a dry run in the form of a dummy election being conducted in Khammam district
• Bathukamma festival = 1. Telangana 2. Nine-day floral festival 3. Festival begins on the day of Mahalaya Amavasya and the festival continues till nine days, ending on the day of Durgashtami
• Allium Negianum = 1. A New Species of Onion 2. In Uttarakhand 3. Allium is one of the largest genera in Amaryllidaceae 4. The scientific name Allium negianum honours the late Dr. Kuldeep Singh Negi, an eminent explorer and Allium collector from India
• Bhaskarabda = 1. A Luni-Solar Calendar 2. The Assam Government has announced that Bhaskarabda will be used as an official calendar 2. Bhaskarabda is an era counted from the date of the ascension of a 7th-century local ruler Bhaskar Varman 4. Based on both the phases of the moon and the solar year 5. Bhaskaravarman was crowned ruler of the Kamrupa kingdom; He belonged to the Varman dynasty 6. He is known for his alliance with Harshavardhana against Shashanka
• Azad Hind Government = 1. Formation Anniversary is celebrated on 21st October every year 2. The day marks the announcement of India's first independent provisional government 3. On 21st October 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose announced the formation of the Provisional Government of Azad Hind (Free India) in Singapore
• Mastirak Gel = 1. The National Innovation Foundation (NIF) has developed a poly-herbal medicine called Mastirak Gel to treat Mastitis in Dairy Cattle 2. Mastirak Gel- It can improve the udder (Milk producing part) health, It reduces inflammation which is detrimental to the udder, It also reduces the use of antibiotics and helps in the cost-effective management of the disease 3. Mastitis- Mastitis, or inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most common and the most expensive disease of dairy cattle throughout most of the world
• Anita Anand = 1. Canada’s new Defence Minister 2. Indian-origin Leader Anita Anand (54-year-old) will replace Indian-origin Harjit Sajjan 3. Anita Anand was declared winner in Oakville
• United Nations Day = 1.The United Nations Day is observed on October 24, every year since 1948 2. The United Nations was officially established on October 24, 1945 3. The UN Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, by the representatives of the 50 countries
• Jaynagar-Kurtha rail link = 1. India has handed over a 34.9 km long cross-border rail link to the Nepal government that connects Jayanagar in Bihar to Kurtha in Nepal 2. It is va part of 68.7 km Jaynagar – Bijalpura- Bardidas rail link 3. This operationalised cross-border rail link is likely to enhance trade and commerce activities
• Goa = 1. Became the 1st state to achieve Open Defecation Free (ODF) and Electricity for each household 2. Goa has also become the first state to provide tap water to every household under the “Har Ghar Jal Mission” 3. Goa achieved a 100 per cent target to provide free ration to the poor and needy 4. Also completed 100 percent first dose of covid-19 vaccination 5. Goa CM: Pramod Sawant 6. Goa Governor: S. Sreedharan Pillai
• Shijian-21 = 1. China successfully launched a new satellite named Shijian-21 2. The satellite will be used to test and verify space debris mitigation technologies 3. This launch marked the 393rd mission for the Long March series carrier rockets
• Syracuse 4A = 1. France launched Military Communications Satellite 2. It is designed to allow France’s armed forces across the globe to communicate swiftly and securely 3. Syracuse IV is the first French military satellite with the ability to detect other satellites that are trying to gather information from it or to destroy it
• Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar = 1. The Prime Minister has paid homage to Pasumpon Muthuramalinga Thevar on 114th Thevar Jayanthi (Guru Pooja) 2. It is celebrated on 30th October every year to commemorate the birth anniversary of Pasumpon Muthuramalingam Thevar 3. Freedom-fighter-cum-spiritual leader 4. Seen as a deity among the Mukulathor community, a cluster community comprising the Kallar, Maravar, and Ahambadiar 5. He did not accept traditional Hinduism because it supported ‘Varnashrama’ 6. He served as the national deputy chairman of All India Forward Bloc (AIFB) from 1952
All India Forward Bloc
• It was formed in May 1939 by Subhash Chandra Bose.
• It was a left-wing nationalist political party in India which emerged as a faction within the India Congress in 1939.
• First All India Conference of Forward bloc was held in Nagpur in June 1940.
• The prime objective of the Forward Bloc was to bring all radical elements of the Congress party together.
• It was declared banned on 23 June 1942.
• The party re-established itself as an independent political party after the independence of India.
• Chennai-Mysore-Chennai Shatabdi Express = 1. Become the first Integrated Management Systems (IMS) certified train of the Southern Railway 2. First Shatabdi train as well as second mail or express train of Indian Railways to receive this certification 3. IMS certification- a holistic approach, combining multiple aspects of the performance of the organisation to meet the requirements of various management system standards
• Sardar Patel Leadership Centre = 1. Union Minister Dr Jitendra Singh has dedicated to the nation “Sardar Patel Leadership Centre” at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration (LBSNAA) in Mussoorie 2. On the occasion of Rashtriya Ekta Diwas on October 31, 2021 3. Birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 4. Aims to lay the foundation capacity building for future generations of Civil Servants from India and Abroad, as visualised by the Father of All India Services
• India’s largest aromatic garden = 1. Uttarakhand gets India’s largest aromatic garden in the Nainital district 2. The garden has 140 different species of aromatic species from across India 3. project was initiated in the year 2018-19 after approval of the Research Advisory Committee in June 2018
• Bhavani Devi = 1. Won Charlellville National Competition in France 2. Bhavani Devi made history at the Tokyo Olympics by becoming the first Indian to compete in the sport at the Games 3. Fencing, organized sport involving the use of a sword for attack and defense according to set movements and rules 4. Fencing Association of India was established in 1974 and now is headquartered at Patiala, Punjab
• Ahmedabad and Lucknow = 1. Two new teams of the Indian Premier League (IPL) 2. RP-Sanjiv Goenka Group (RPSG) is the owner of the Lucknow team while CVC Capital Partners is the owner of the Ahmedabad team 3. The Indian Premier League is a professional Twenty20 cricket league, contested by ten teams based out of Ten Indian Cities 4. The league was founded by the Board of Control for Cricket in India in 2007
• World Polio Day = 1. 24 October 2. To raise awareness for polio vaccination and eradication of polio 3. The Day was established by Rotary International to commemorate the birth of Jonas Salk 4. Jonas Salk led the first team to develop a vaccine against poliomyelitis
• Rajinikanth = 1. Actor Rajinikanth was honoured with the prestigious 51st Dadasaheb Phalke Award at the 67th National Film Awards ceremony 2. Instituted in 1969, the award is the highest honour for an artiste in Indian cinema 3. Dadasaheb Phalke Award Established: 1969