• Technical Textile = 1. The Union Minister of Commerce and Industry targeted a five times increase in the export of Technical Textiles in three years 2. From the current USD 2 billion to USD 10 billion 3. Technical textiles are functional fabrics that have applications across various industries-automobiles, civil engineering, and construction, agriculture, healthcare, industrial safety, personal protection, etc 4. Derive their demand from development and industrialization in a country
5. National Technical Textile Mission- Launched with a total outlay of USD 194 Mn in February 2020 with a view to positioning the country as a global leader in technical textiles 6. Production Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme for Textiles Sector- Aims to promote the production of high-value Man-Made Fiber (MMF) fabrics, garments, and technical textiles
• Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 = 1. The Department of Consumer Affairs has omitted Rule 5 of the Legal Metrology (Packaged Commodities), Rules 2011 to safeguard the interests of consumers 2. Rule 5 defines Schedule II prescribing the pack sizes of various types of commodities 3. Declaration of Maximum Retail Price (MRP) in Indian currency inclusive of all taxes on pre-packaged commodities and date of manufacture has been made mandatory
• HARBINGER 2021 = 1. First global hackathon of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) 2. HARBINGER 2021–Innovation for Transformation’ focusing on digital payments 3. Theme- ‘Smarter Digital Payments’ 4. To make digital payments accessible to the under-served 5. The hackathon is inviting innovative ideas in payment & settlement system.
• Input Tax Credit = 1. The CBIC (Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs) issued guidelines on blocking of tax credit by GST (Goods and Services Tax) field officers 2. Input Tax Credit is the tax that a business pays on a purchase and that it can use to reduce its tax liability when it makes a sale
Central Board of Indirect Taxes and Customs (CBIC)
• Part of the Department of Revenue under the Ministry of Finance.
• The Central Board of Excise and Customs (CBEC) was renamed as the CBIC in 2018 after the rollout of the GST.
• It deals with the tasks of formulation of policy concerning levy and collection of customs, central excise duties, Central GST (CGST), and Integrated GST (IGST).
• RBI’s Retail Direct Scheme = 1. The Prime Minister has launched the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) - Retail Direct Scheme 2. To open up the Government bond market for the retail investors 3. Under the scheme, retail investors (individuals) will have the facility to open and maintain the ‘Retail Direct Gilt Account’ (RDG Account) with the RBI
• A non-professional investor who buys and sells securities or funds that contain a basket of securities such as mutual funds and Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs).
• A tradable instrument issued by the Central Government or the State Governments
• It acknowledges the Government’s debt obligation
• Current Account Deficit = 1. According to a recent report by British brokerage Barclays, India's trade deficit has been jumping continuously since July 2021 2. The widening Current Account Deficit (CAD) is driven by the massive spike in commodity prices led by crude oil 3. A current account deficit occurs when the total value of goods and services a country imports exceeds the total value of goods and services it exports 4. The balance of exports and imports of goods is referred to as the trade balance 5. Trade Balance is a part of ‘Current Account Balance’
• A government official who deals with complaints made by ordinary people against public organizations.
• This concept of Ombudsman arrived from Sweden.
• Integrated ombudsman scheme = 1. It amalgamates three ombudsman schemes of RBI - banking ombudsman scheme of 2006, ombudsman scheme for NBFCs of 2018 and ombudsman scheme of digital transactions of 2019 2. The unified ombudsman scheme will provide redress of customer complaints involving deficiency in services rendered by RBI regulated entities 3. It also includes non-scheduled primary co-operative banks with a deposit size of Rs 50 crore and above 4. The Scheme defines ‘deficiency in service’ as the ground for filing a complaint, with a specified list of exclusions
• India Becomes the Highest Recipient of Remittances = 1. According to the World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief, India has become the world’s largest recipient of Remittances 2. Receiving USD 87 billion (a gain of 4.6 % from previous year) in 2021 3. India is followed by China, Mexico, the Philippines, and Egypt 4. The United States being the biggest source, accounting for over 20% of all Remittances 5. Remittances are projected to grow 3% in 2022 to USD 89.6 billion, because of a drop in overall migrant stock 6. World Bank’s Migration and Development Brief- This is prepared by the Migration and Remittances Unit, Development Economics (DEC)- the premier research and data arm of the World Bank
• Tight/Shale Oil = 1. Cairn India will partner with US-based Halliburton to start shale exploration in the Lower Barmer Hill formation, Western Rajasthan 2. Tight Oil-The key difference between shale oil and conventional crude is that the former, also called ‘tight oil’, is found in smaller batches, and deeper than conventional crude deposits 3. Shale Gas- Unlike conventional hydrocarbons that can be extracted from the permeable rocks easily, shale gas is trapped under low permeable rocks 4. Extraction Process- Extraction requires the creation of fractures in oil and gas-rich shale to release hydrocarbons through a process called hydraulic fracking/fracturing 5. Russia and the US are among the largest shale oil producers in the world 6. State-owned ONGC had, in 2013, found prospects of shale oil at the Cambay basin in Gujarat and the Krishna Godavari basin in Andhra Pradesh
• Central Bank Digital Currency = 1. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has proposed amendments to the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, which would enable it to launch a Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC) 2. CBDC is a digital form of Fiat Currency which can be transacted using wallets backed by block chain and is regulated by the central bank 3. It is a legal tender issued by a central bank in a digital form 4. Fiat money is a government-issued currency that is not backed by a commodity such as gold 5. It would reduce the cost of currency management while enabling real-time payments without any inter-bank settlement
• India1 Payments = 1. Crossed a milestone on deploying 10000 white-label ATMs, called “India1ATMs” 2. It is IPO-bound and is promoted by the Banktech Group of Australia 3. Formerly known as BTI Payments 4. White-Label ATMs- The Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) which are set up, owned and operated by non-bank entities are known as “White Label ATMs” (WLAs)
• Wage Rate Index (WRI) = 1. Ministry of Labour released a new series of Wage Rate Index (WRI) with base year 2016 2. WRI is being compiled and maintained by the Labour Bureau 3. New series of WRI with base 2016=100 is going to replace old series with base 1963-65 4. New WRI series will be compiled twice a year, as on January 1 and July 1 each year, on point-to-point half-yearly basis 5. Selected 37 industries in new series are categorized as 3 industries from plantation sector, 4 industries from mining sector and 30 industries from the manufacturing sector
• National Bank for Financing Infrastructure and Development (NBFID) = 1. Set to start its lending operations with 190-200 big infrastructure projects in roads, railways, and energy sector 2. Chairman of NBFID, K V Kamath 3. NBFID was set up as a corporate body, with an authorized share capital of one lakh crore rupees 4. Functions of NBFID- extend loans and advances for infrastructure projects, take over or refinance such existing loans, attract investment from private sector investors, organise and facilitate foreign participation in infrastructure projects 5. NBFID raises money in the form of loans or otherwise in Indian rupees and foreign currencies
• 18th India-ASEAN Summit = 1. India participated in the 18th India-ASEAN Summit at the invitation of Brunei, the current Chair of ASEAN 2. The Year 2022 has been highlighted as India-ASEAN Friendship by the leaders 3. The centrality of ASEAN in India's Act East Policy and in India's Vision for the wider Indo-Pacific Vision has been underlined
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
• A regional grouping that promotes economic, political and security cooperation.
• It was established in August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).
• Founding fathers- Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand
• Members-Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam
• Italy-India Strategic Partnership in Energy Transition = 1. Joint Statement 2. The adoption of the Action Plan for an enhanced Partnership between India and Italy (2020 –2024) in November 2020 3. Joint Working Group- Smart Cities, mobility; smart-grids, electricity distribution, and storage solutions, Integrated waste management ("waste-to-wealth”) 4. 2021 is the year of the 73rd anniversary of diplomatic relations between India and Italy
• Global Resilience Index Initiative (GRII) = 1. It was launched during the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (CoP) 26 adaptation day (8th November 2021) 2. It will be the world’s first curated the open-source reference index 3. To build a universal model for assessing resilience to climate risks 4. It will provide reference data on climate and natural hazard risks to inform and protect populations and economies, particularly in emerging and developing countries 5. Natural catastrophes cost nearly USD 200 billion globally in 2020
• India Sweden Innovation Meet = 1. On 26 October, 2021, India and Sweden celebrated the 8th Innovation Day 2. India is well on its way to meet and exceed its Paris Climate commitments 3. Sweden’s goal is of achieving net-zero emissions by 2045 and negative net emissions following that 4. India and Sweden are together in the UN (United Nations) led industrial transition programme (‘Leadership Group for Industry Transition’)
• Biden-Xi Summit = 1. President Joe Biden of the United States and Chinese President Xi Jinping met for the first virtual bilateral meeting 2. US raised concerns about the human rights violation practices in Xinjiang (Uighur Muslims), Tibet, and Hong Kong 3. US’ trade deficit with China was around USD 375 billion for 2017 4. The US Treasury Department has declared China as a currency manipulator 5. The US has recently proposed to expand G7 to G-11 without including China in it
• Indian Ocean Naval Symposium = 1. The 7th edition of Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) Conclave of Chiefs 2. Being hosted by the French Navy at Paris 3. The IONS is a voluntary and inclusive initiative that brings together navies of Indian Ocean Region (IOR) littoral states 4. To increase maritime co-operation and enhance regional security 5. France assumed the Chairmanship of IONS in June 2021 for two-year tenure 6. IONS include 24 member nations that touch or lie within the IOR, and 8 observer nations 7. Indian Ocean Rim Association- It was established in 1997
• India-US Trade Policy Forum = 1. After a gap of four years, the Trade Policy Forum (TPF) was convened between the United States and India 2. To activate working groups of the TPF on agriculture, non-agriculture goods, services, investment, and intellectual property 3. India has sought restoration of the GSP (Generalized System of Preferences) benefits by the U.S. 4. The U.S. indicated an interest in supplying ethanol to India for its goal of 20% ethanol blending with petrol by 2025
• World Congress on Disaster Management = 1. The Defence Minister of India addressed the 5th World Congress on Disaster Management (WCDM) held in New Delhi 2. It is a unique initiative of Disaster management initiatives and convergence society to bring researchers, policy makers and practitioners from around the world in the same platform 3. To discuss various challenging issues of disaster risk management 4. To promote interaction of science, policy and practices to enhance understanding of risks and advance actions
• Barbados = 1. World’s newest republic 2. Caribbean Island nation, removed Queen Elizabeth II as the head of the state 3. Dame Sandra Prunella Mason took over as the President of Barbados 4. Barbados first became an English colony in 1625 5. In gained its independence in 1966
Science & Technology
• Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Cervarix) = 1. New research has found that the Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Cervarix) reduces the risk of Cervical Cancer significantly in women 2. Cervical Cancer- It is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix - the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina 3. Various strains of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) play a role in causing most cervical cancer 4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral infection of the reproductive tract
United States Geological Survey (USGS)
• A scientific agency of the United States government.
• Involved in studying the landscape of US, its natural resources as well as natural hazards threatening the country
• Molnupiravir = 1. A Drug for Covid-19 2. It is claimed that Molnupiravir, an oral drug, can cut the risk of hospitalization in Covid-19 patients by half, in phase 3 trials 3. Molnupiravir belongs to a class of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs called nucleoside analogues 4. These drugs work by preventing the process of replication of the virus inside human cells
• Landsat 9 satellite = 1. NASA and US Geological Survey led Landsat 9 mission collected and sent its first light images of the Earth 2. Images highlight the remote coastal islands and inlets of Kimberley region of Western Australia, Lake Erie, white sands of Pensacola Beach, and Glaciers high in the Himalayas 3. Landsat 9 is an Earth observation satellite 4. Joint mission of NASA and US Geological Survey (USGS)
• Leonids Meteor Shower = 1. The annual Leonids Meteor Shower has begun 2. It will be active between 6th and 30th November 3. Meteor is a space rock or meteoroid that enters Earth's atmosphere 4. Meteoroids are objects in space that range in size from dust grains to small asteroids 5. When Earth encounters many meteoroids at once, it is called a meteor shower 6. The Leonids are also called fireballs and earth grazer meteors
• International Solar Alliance (ISA) = 1. The United States of America has become the 101st member country to join ISA 2. The ISA is an intergovernmental treaty-based organisation with a global mandate to catalyse solar growth 3. ISA is the nodal agency for implementing One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) 4. New ISA programmes have been launched on management of solar PV panels & battery usage waste and solar hydrogen programme
• Norovirus = 1. A highly contagious virus named Norovirus has been detected in Kerala 2. It is a group of viruses that leads to gastrointestinal illness 3. It causes inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestines, in addition to severe vomiting and diarrhea 4. Norovirus is resistant to many disinfectants and can heat up to 60°C. 5. The virus can primarily be transmitted from oral-faecal
• IRNSS-NaVIC = 1. The Vice President has suggested ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) make Indian regional navigation satellite system-Navigation in Indian Constellation (NaVIC) for global use 2. Presently, IRNSS consists of eight satellites, three satellites in geostationary orbit and five satellites in geosynchronous orbit 3. IRNSS-1I is expected to replace IRNSS-1A, which was rendered ineffective after its three rubidium atomic clocks failed 4. To provide reliable position, navigation and timing services over India and its neighbourhood 5. It gives real-time information for 2 services i.e standard positioning service open for civilian use and restricted service which may be encrypted for authorized users like for military 6. India became one of the 5 countries having their own navigation system like GPS of USA, GLONASS of Russia, Galileo of Europe and BeiDou of China
• Tsirkon (Zircon) Hypersonic Cruise Missile = 1. Russia has fired its Tsirkon (Zircon) Hypersonic Cruise Missile from a warship in the north of the country 2. The Tsirkon Cruise Missile will join Avangard glide vehicles and the air-launched Kinzhal (Dagger) missiles 3. Cruise missiles differ from ballistic missiles in that they fly towards their target at lower altitudes, remaining within the Earth’s atmosphere throughout their trajectory 4. Hypersonic Weapons are much harder to track and intercept than traditional projectiles
• J0240+1952 = 1. The fastest spinning white dwarf that completes a full rotation once every 25 seconds 2. It is part of a binary star system; under the influence of the magnetic propeller system 3. Under the magnetic propeller system, the white dwarf attracts plasma from the binary star system 4. White dwarfs are stars that have burned up all of the hydrogen they once used as nuclear fuel 5. Chandrasekhar Limit is the maximum mass theoretically possible for a stable white dwarf star
• World Antimicrobial Awareness Week (WAAW) = 1. November 18-24 2. The Ministry of Animal Husbandry and Dairying has organized a workshop on the National Action Plan to combat Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) 3. Theme- “Spread awareness, stop resistance” 4. An International Colour Campaign, ‘Go Blue’ campaign, was launched by the AMR tripartite organisations (World Health Organization, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World organisation for Animal Health) to help spread awareness about AMR 5. Antimicrobial Resistance is the resistance acquired by any microorganism (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasite, etc.) against antimicrobial drugs (such as antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antimalarials, and anthelmintics) that are used to treat infections 6. Microorganisms that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as “superbugs” 7. The WHO has declared AMR as one of the top 10 global health threats
• Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) = 1. India-Israel Women in STEM conference was held 2.The STEM acronym was introduced in 2001 by scientific administrators at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) 3. It is a curriculum based on the idea of educating students in 4 specific disciplines- science, technology, engineering and mathematics 4. India is one of the countries that produce the highest number of scientists and engineers 5. About 43% of STEM graduates in India are women
• Tundra Satellite System = 1. Russia has successfully placed into orbit a military satellite 2. The satellite is believed to be a Tundra Satellite, part of Russia's early warning anti-missile system named Kupol or dome 3. Tundra satellite system is a constellation of Missile Early Warning Satellites established by Russia between 2015 and 2020
Pixxel 1 satellite
• Pixxel 1 satellite will be launched in 2022.
• First private satellite in an Earth Observation constellation in low Earth orbit.
• Dhawan-1 = 1. India’s first privately built cryogenic rocket engine 2. Test-fired by Skyroot Aerospace 3. Skyroot Aerospace demonstrated the upper stage of its Vikram-2 launch vehicle 4. Named after Satish Dhawan, the third chairman of ISRO 5. Dhawan-1 engine comprises of a vacuum thrust of about 1.5kN. Engine was tested on a specially constructed testbed at Solar Industries in Nagpur
• Prawn Nebula = 1. The Hubble Telescope has observed “Prawn Nebula”, which is a massive stellar nursery located around 6,000 light-years away in Scorpius constellation 2. Prawn Nebula is an emission nebula, meaning that its gas has been energized, or ionized, by the radiation of neighbouring stars 3. Emission Nebula is formed of ionized gases which emit light of various wavelengths 4. The Hubble Space telescope was launched in 1990 into low Earth orbit. It is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble
• Tech NEEV@75 = 1. Inaugurated by Ministry of Science & Technology 2. It is a year-long celebration, highlighting the impact of Science Technology Innovation (STI) in empowering the community to create equitable inclusive economic growth 3. It will lead to opportunities for land to lab research and help in building synergies with traditional, local, and indigenous knowledge
Polity & Governance
• Bhasha Sangam Initiative = 1. Launched by Ministry of Education under Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat (EBSB) 2. Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat was announced by the Prime Minister in 2015 on the occasion of the 140th birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel 3. Bhasha Sangam- to teach basic sentences of everyday usage in 22 Indian languages (Eighth Schedule languages) 4. Developed by the National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) 5. The idea is that people should acquire basic conversational skills in an Indian language other than their mother tongue
• Whistle Blower Portal = 1. Launched by Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) 2. As a part of ‘Vigilance Awareness Week 2021’ 3. Through this portal, IREDA employees can raise concerns related to fraud, corruption, abuse of power etc 4. According to the Companies Act 2013, whistle blowing is an action aimed at drawing the attention of stakeholders to instances of unethical practices in an organization 5. IREDA is a Mini Ratna (Category – I) Government of India Enterprise under the administrative control of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) 6. Vigilance Awareness Week- celebrated every year in the birthday week of Sardar Vallabbhai Patel, 'Independent India @ 75: Self Reliance and Integrity'
• Jai Bhim Mukhyamantri Pratibha Vikas Yojana = 1. Under “Jai Bhim Mukhyamantri Pratibha Vikas Yojana, around 15,000 students have enrolled for coaching classes in the year 2021 2. It was launched by Delhi Government 2. For various competitive exams at some private centres 3. Covers children belonging to economically poor background and marginalised communities 4. This scheme was launched in 2018
• Ayushman CAPF = 1. The central government has extended the benefits of “Ayushman CAPF healthcare scheme” to the personnel of all Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs) 2. It will benefit 35 lakh CAPF personnel and their family members 3. The Ayushman CAPF healthcare scheme was first launched on January 23, 2021 4. Ayushman Bharat Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY) is a national public health insurance fund, launched with the aim of providing free access to health insurance coverage for low-income earners in India
• Dairy Sahakarv scheme = 1. The Union Minister of Cooperation, Amit Shah has launched the “Dairy Sahakar” scheme at Anand, Gujarat 2. During a function organised by Amul to celebrate the 75th Foundation Year of Amul 3. The scheme will be implemented by National Cooperative Development Corporation ( NCDC) under the Ministry of Cooperation
• Haryana State Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2020 = 1. Haryana Government has said that the Employment of Local Candidates Act, 2020 will be implemented in the state from 15th January 2022 2. It requires firms with 10 or more employees to reserve 75% of all jobs 3. The move is aimed at disallowing the influx of talent from other parts of the country even in sectors like IT and IT-enabled services (ITes) 4. Law will be applicable for a period of 10 years
• MPLAD Scheme = 1. Member of Parliament Local Area Development Scheme (MPLADS) 2. The Union Cabinet has approved the restoration of the Scheme for the remaining part of Financial Year 2021-22 till 2025-26 3. The scheme was suspended for two financial years (2020-21 and 2021-22) 4. It is a Central Sector Scheme which was announced in December 1993 5. To enable MPs to recommend works of developmental nature with emphasis on the creation of durable community assets in the areas of drinking water, primary education, public health, sanitation and roads, etc. primarily in their Constituencies
• Janjatiya Gaurav Divas = 1. 15th November 2. To commemorate the brave tribal freedom fighters as part of the year-long celebrations of 75 years of India’s Independence 3. A tribal freedom fighter museum at Ranchi would be inaugurated by the Prime Minister 4. 15th November also marks the birth anniversary of Birsa Munda 5. Birsa Munda is revered as God by tribal communities across India
• Tenures of CBI & ED Directors Extended = 1. The President promulgated two ordinances that would allow the Centre to extend the tenures of the directors of the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Enforcement Directorate from two years to up to five years 2. The CBI was set up in 1963 by a resolution of the Ministry of Home Affairs, recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–1964) 3. Now, the CBI comes under the administrative control of the Department of Personnel and Training (DoPT) of the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions 4. Directorate of Enforcement is a specialized financial investigation agency under the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance (Formed on 1st May 1956)
• Safai Mitra Suraksha Challenge = 1. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) 2. A week-long awareness campaign on SafaiMitra Suraksha Challenge (SSC) as part of the ‘World Toilet Day’ (19th November) celebrations 3. To run-up to the ‘Swachh Amrit Diwas’ 4. The Swachh Amrit Diwas is an award ceremony to recognize the role and efforts of the states, cities, ULBs (Urban Local Bodies), and Cantonment Board in Swachh Survekshan 2021
• Duare Ration Scheme = 1. Launched by West Bengal government 2. For providing food grains under the Public Distribution System (PDS) at the doorstep for the entire population of the State 3. A mobile application, "Khadya Sathi: Amar Ration Mobile App" to help people apply for ration cards, was also launched
Directorate General of Civil Aviation
• It is an attached office of the Ministry of Civil Aviation.
• It is the regulatory body in the field of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues.
• Digital India Land Record Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) = 1. The Ministry of Rural Development inaugurated 'Bhumi Samvaad' 2. Also launched the National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS) portal 3. The DILRMP was approved by the Cabinet on 21st August 2008 4. It is a Central Sector scheme that has been extended to 2023-24 5. To complete its original targets as well as expands its ambit with a slew of new schemes 6. Being implemented by the Department of Land Resources (Ministry of Rural Development) 7. Components- Computerization of land records, Survey/re-survey, Computerization of Registration, Modern record rooms/land records management centres at tehsil/taluk/circle/block level, Training & capacity building
• e-Governance for Civil Aviation (e-GCA) = 1. Ministry of Civil Aviation 2. The online platform through which Civil Aviation will provide 298 services including pilot licensing and medical examination 3. It offers an end-to-end solution including several software applications, connectivity with all the regional offices 4. It aims at enhancing the efficiency of the various services of DGCA and increasing accountability and transparency across all DGCA functions
• PMGSY I and II and RCPLWEA = 1. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) gave its approval for the continuation of Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana-I and II (PMGSY-I and II) up to September 2022 for completion of balance road and bridge works 2. The CCEA also approved the continuation of the Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism Affected Areas (RCPLWEA) up to March 2023 3. PMGSY-I- Centrally Sponsored Scheme, launched in the year 2000 to provide connectivity to eligible unconnected habitations of 500+ in plain areas and 250+ in North-East and Himalayan states as per census 2001 4. PMGSY-II- It was approved by the Cabinet in May 2013, envisaged consolidation of 50,000 Km of the existing rural road network 5. PMGSY-III- It was launched in the year 2019 for consolidation of 1,25,000 Km existing through routes and major rural links connecting habitations, inter-alia, to Gramin Agricultural Markets, Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals 6. RCPLWEA- It was launched in 2016 for construction/up-gradation of 5,412 Km road length and 126 bridges of strategic importance in 44 districts in 9 states, viz. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Telangana, and Uttar Pradesh
• Project Samhati = 1. The ST and SC Development Department of the Odisha government has started project 2. The new National Education Policy 2020 lays emphasis on imparting teaching in the mother tongue in primary classes 3. Under this, the department plans to cover approximately 2.5 lakh students in 1,450 primary schools in State 4. Odisha’s Adivasi communities are as diverse as 21 spoken languages 5. Out of the 21 languages, Santhali, the only language which has been included in the eighth schedule of Constitution
• Repealing Farm Laws = 1. Prime Minister announced the repeal of the three contentious farm laws 2. The Parliament ( Lok Sabha + Rajya Sabha + President) has the authority to enact, amend, and repeal any law 3. Three Farm Laws- Farmers Produce Trade and Commerce (Promotion and Facilitation) Act, 2020, Farmers (Empowerment and Protection) Agreement on Price Assurance and Farm Services Act, 2020, Essential Commodities (Amendment) Act, 2020 4. Reason for Enacting the Laws- There has been a long-pending demand for reforms in agricultural marketing, a subject that comes under the purview of state governments 5. Farmers Protest- As per the farmers the law is framed to suit big corporations who seek to dominate the Indian food and agriculture business and will weaken the negotiating power of farmers, the second demand of farmers is the guarantee of Minimum Support Price (MSP), the third demand of farmers is the withdrawal of the Electricity (Amendment) Bill 6. The Supreme Court stayed the implementation of the three laws in January 2021 7. The farm laws were in force for only 221 days
• Universal Service Obligation Fund (USOF) scheme = 1. For provisioning of 4G-based mobile services in uncovered villages of aspirational districts across five states — Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, and Odisha 2. NITI Aayog's Aspirational Districts programme aims to quickly and effectively transform 112 most under-developed districts across the country 3. USOF ensures that there is universal non-discriminatory access to quality ICT (Information and Communications Technology) services at economically efficient prices to people in rural and remote areas 4. It was created under the Ministry of Communications in 2002 5. It is a non-lapsable fund
• The Personal Data Protection (PDP) Bill, 2019 = 1. A Joint Parliamentary Committee (JPC) has finalised and adopted the draft report on The PDP Bill, 2019 by a majority 2. It was first brought to the Parliament in 2019 and was referred to the JPC for examination at the time 3. It is commonly referred to as the “Privacy Bill” 4. Intends to protect individual rights by regulating the collection, movement, and processing of data that is personal, or which can identify the individual
• Chhattisgarh Panchayat Provisions (Extension of the Scheduled) Rules, 2021 = 1. Chhattisgarh Government 2. Draft rules under Panchayat Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act, 1996 3. The bill envisages instituting devaluation of power and strengthening the gram sabhas at the village level 4. Six states (Himachal Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra) have formed the PESA laws 5. Chhattisgarh would become the seventh state if the rules are enacted 6. It will rejuvenate the dying self-governance system in the tribal area
• Bharat Gaurav Scheme = 1. Announced by Indian Railways 2. To tap the huge potential of tourism 3. Under the scheme, now trains have a third segment for tourism 4. Announced under the theme-based tourist circuit trains 5. These trains will be run, by both private players and IRCTC, in theme-based circuits 6. By theme-based tourism (circuits), the railways means trains like Guru Kripa that goes to all places related to Guru Nanak or a Ramayan-themed train to touch upon places related to Lord Ram
• Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana = 1. The Union Cabinet has approved the extension for the Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Anna Yojana (PMGKAY-Phase V) for a period of another 4 months 2. December 2021 till March 2022 3. PMGKAY is a part of Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Package (PMGKP) to help the poor fight the battle against Covid-19 4. Nodal Ministry- Ministry of Finance 5. The scheme aimed at providing each person who is covered under the NFSA (National Food Security Act 2013) with an additional 5 kg grains (wheat or rice) for free
• O-SMART Scheme = 1. ‘Ocean Services, Modelling, Application, Resources and Technology (O-SMART)’ Scheme, launched in August 2018 2. Continuation Approved by The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs 3. For the period of 2021-26 4. Aims at promoting ocean research and setting up early warning weather systems 5. Also aims at addressing ocean development activities 6. It comprises seven sub-schemes which are being implemented by autonomous institutes of the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) 7. Sub-Schemes- Ocean Technology, Ocean Modelling and Advisory Services (OSMAS), Ocean Observation Network (OON), Ocean Non-Living Resources, Marine Living Resources and Ecology (MLRE), Coastal Research and Operation, Maintenance of Research Vessels
• River Cities Alliance (RCA) = 1. Launched by the Ministry of Jal Shakti along with the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs 2. Dedicated platform for river cities in India to ideate, discuss and exchange information for sustainable management of urban rivers 3. The Alliance will focus on three broad themes- Networking, Capacity Building and Technical Support 4. The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) and National Institute for Urban Affairs (NIUA) have collaborated together to launch the RCA
• India Young Water Professional Programme = 1. The Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched the first edition of the India Young Water Professional Programme 2. Its launch marks a significant milestone in Australia-India Water relationship 3. This program has been taken up under the National Hydrology Project 4. It is focused on Engaged Training and Learning Model 5. It also focuses on gender equality and diversity 6. National Hydrology Project was started in 2016 as a Central Sector Scheme by the Ministry of Jal Shakti and is supported by the World Bank, To improve the extent, reliability and accessibility of water resources information
• Carbon Neutrality = 1. India announced that it will reach carbon neutrality by 2070 2. Net Zero is a state in which a country’s total emissions are offset by absorptions of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere 3. India has the lowest per capita emissions of the world’s major economies emitting 5% of the total, despite accounting for 17% of the world’s population
• Ganges River Dolphin = 1. The Ministry of Jal Shakti released a guide for the safe rescue and release of stranded Ganges River Dolphins 2. The document has been prepared by the Turtle Survival Alliance and the Environment, Forest and Climate Change Department (EFCCD) of the Uttar Pradesh Government 3. Habitat- They lives in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Karnaphuli-Sangu river systems of Nepal, India, and Bangladesh 4. The Ganges river dolphin can only live in freshwater and is essentially blind 5. Threats- Bycatch, Pollution and Dams 6. Conservation Status- Indian Wildlife (Protection), Act 1972: Schedule I, International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Endangered, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): Appendix I (most endangered) and Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): Appendix II 7. Vikramshila Ganges Dolphin Sanctuary has been established in Bihar 8. 5th October- National Ganga River Dolphin Day
• Stubble Burning = 1. A study was conducted in Punjab that showed pollution from stubble burning significantly reduced lung function 2. The concentration of PM2.5 (Particulate Matter-2.5) was found to increase 3. PM2.5 refers to particles that have a diameter less than 2.5 micrometers 4. A two to three-fold increase was noted in most of the respiratory symptoms including wheezing, breathlessness on exertion, skin rashes, itchiness of eyes, etc. across all age groups (10-60 years) 5. Stubble (parali) burning is the act of setting fire to crop residue to remove them from the field to sow the next crop
Alternatives to Stubble Burning
• In-Situ Treatment of Stubble- Zero-tiller machine and Use of bio-decomposers
• Ex-Situ (off-site) Treatment- Use of rice straw as cattle fodder
• Use of Technology- Turbo Happy Seeder (THS) machine
• Bio Enzyme-PUSA
• Frothing in the Yamuna = 1. A layer of froth was seen floating over parts of the Yamuna River, which has now become a repeat occurrence in Delhi 2. Earlier, high levels of ammonia in Yamuna resulted in frequent disruption to Delhi’s water supply
• National Interlinking of Rivers Authority = 1. The central government is contemplating the creation of the National Interlinking of Rivers Authority (NIRA) 2. Supposed to be an independent autonomous body for planning, investigation, financing and the implementation of the river interlinking projects 3. It will replace the existing National Water Development Agency (NWDA) 4. The Interlinking of Rivers programme (ILR) programme is aimed at linking different surplus rivers of the country with deficient rivers
• Kaiser-i-Hind Butterfly = 1. Arunachal Pradesh has approved the large, brightly coloured Kaiser-i-Hind as the State butterfly 2. Kaiser-i-Hind literally means Emperor of India 3. Scientific Name- Teinopalpus imperialis 4. It is one of the very rare and elusive swallowtail butterflies which are found at medium and higher elevations 5. Found in the Eastern and Western Himalayas 6. Also flutters in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and southern China 7. Protection Status- IUCN: Near Threatened, CITES: Appendix II, Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule II
• Indus River Dolphin = 1. Punjab's wildlife preservation wing has batted for conservation of Indus river dolphins 2. The Indus river dolphin was declared the State aquatic animal of Punjab in 2019 3. The Indus river dolphin is an important indicator of the health of a river 4. They can only be found in the lower parts of the Indus River in Pakistan and in River Beas, a tributary of the Indus River in Punjab, India 5. Threats- Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources, Dams & water management/use, Domestic & urban waste water, Industrial & military effluents, Agricultural & forestry effluents 6. Conservation Status- International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN): Endangered, Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES): Appendix I, Indian Wildlife (Protection), Act 1972: Schedule I 7. Other dolphins found in Indian waters include: Ganges River Dolphins, Irrawaddy dolphins
• Amazon Deforestation = 1. It was found that the area deforested in Brazil's Amazon reached a 15-year high after a 22% jump from the prior year (2020) 2. Earlier, a study showed that Amazon Forests have started emitting Carbon dioxide (CO2) instead of absorbing it 3. Factors of Deforestation in the Amazon- Cattle Ranching, Small-Scale Agriculture, Fires, Industrial Agriculture Operations, Mining operations 4. Initiatives to tackle Deforestation- Brazil was among a number of nations that promised to end and reverse deforestation by 2030 during the COP26 climate summit, LEAF (Lowering Emissions by Accelerating Forest Finance) Coalition was announced at the Leaders Summit on Climate, 2021
• world's largest tropical rainforest
• Amazon River and its tributaries in northern South America
• Tropical forests are closed-canopy forests
• They are very wet places, receiving more than 200 cm rainfall per year
• Temperatures are uniformly high - between 20°C and 35°C.
• The Amazon is a vast biome that spans eight rapidly developing countries Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname, and French Guiana
• Kuno National Park = 1. Madhya Pradesh 2. Set to get 13 cheetahs in 2022 3. The Kuno National Park was originally developed as the second home for Asiatic lions in India but that project did not take off 4. 13 cheetahs have been carefully selected, 10 are from South Africa while 3 are from Namibia
• Clean Ocean Manifesto = 1. Presented by Clean Ocean International Expert Group of UN Decade for Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2. Aims- Reducing marine debris by 50-90 percent and globe-circling & high-tech system of monitors 3. Objectives for 2030- Enlarge understanding of pathways for spread & fate of pollutants, Reduce and remove top-priority forms of pollution up to 90 percent and To prevent a recurrence, reduce sources or emission of pollutants
• India’s 1st grass conservatory = 1. Inaugurated in Ranikhet, Uttarakhand 2. Germplasm conservation centre 3. This conservatory is funded under the Central Government’s CAMPA (Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority) scheme and is developed by the research wing of the Uttarakhand Forest Department 4. To create awareness about the importance of grass species, promote their conservation, and facilitate research in the field
Indices and Reports
• Financial Inclusion metrics report = 1. Released by State Bank of India (SBI) 2. Prepared by Chief Economic Advisor of SBI group, Soumya Kanti Ghosh 3. The report states that, financial inclusion policies have a multiplier effect on economic growth, income inequality and reducing poverty 4. Number of bank branches per 100000 adults in India have increased to 14.7 in 2020 as compared to 13.6 in 2015 5. Internet banking transactions per 1,000 adults have boosted to 13,615 in 2019 as opposed to 183 in 2015 6. Number of ‘Banking Outlets in Villages – BCs’ has increased from 34,174 in March 2010 to 12.4 lakh in December 2020
• Global Drug Policy Index = 1. 2021 2. The inaugural Global Drug Policy Index was released by the Harm Reduction Consortium 3. The Harm Reduction Consortium is a global consortium of networks aiming to challenge the global “war on drugs” 4. Major Findings- The global dominance of drug policies based on repression and punishment has led to low scores overall, Standards and expectations from civil society experts on drug policy implementation vary from country to country; Inequality is deeply seated in global drug policies 5. India- India’s rank is 18 out of 30 countries
• LEADS Report 2021 = 1. The Ministry of Commerce and Industry has released the Logistics Ease across Different States (LEADS) Report (Index) 2021 2. Aimed at gauging the logistics performance of states and Union Territories (UT) and identifying areas where they can improve logistics performance 3. India’s logistics costs account for 13-14% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), compared to 7-8% in developed countries 4. The government was aiming to bring down logistics costs by 5% over the next 5 years 5. Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab have emerged as the top performers 6. This is the third year in a row that Gujarat remained on top of the rankings 7. Delhi stands at the top rank among Other UTs
• Annual Status of Education Report (ASER 2021) = 1. 16th edition 2. The survey analysed the impact of Covid-19 on learning 3. It shows an increase in dependence on private tuitions and an absence of ready access to smartphones 4. The ASER survey is facilitated by Pratham Education Foundation 5. Oldest survey of its kind in the country 6. Related Government Initiatives- SWAYAM, NEAT, National Knowledge Network, (NKN), PRAGYATA Guidelines, National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning
• Bribery Risk Matrix 2021 = 1. Released by TRACE, an anti-bribery standard-setting organisation 2. It measures business bribery risk in 194 countries, territories, and autonomous and semi-autonomous regions 3. It was originally published in 2014 to meet a need in the business community 4. India has slipped to 82nd position in 2021, five places down from 77th rank last year 5. North Korea, Turkmenistan, Venezuela and Eritrea pose the highest commercial bribery risk, while Denmark, Norway, Finland, Sweden and New Zealand present the lowest
• Smart Policing Index 2021 = 1. According to a nationwide survey conducted by the Indian Police Foundation (IPF), police in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh scored the lowest among all States when it came to the perception of “sensitivity” 2. The SMART Policing idea was envisioned, articulated and introduced by the Indian PM at the Conference of DGPs of State and Central Police Organizations, held at Guwahati, in the year 2014 3. The SMART scores are set on a scale of 1 to10 and are indicative of the levels of citizen satisfaction, a score of 10 being the highest level of satisfaction 4. The top five states with the highest score on overall policing are Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Assam, Kerala and Sikkim 5. From bottom upwards are Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Punjab
• Swachh Survekshan 2021 = 1. The President awarded the respective cities in the 6th Edition of Swachh Survekshan (SS) 2021 2. It is an annual survey of cleanliness, hygiene and sanitation in cities and towns across India 3. It was launched as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan 4. First survey was undertaken in 2016 5. Nodal Ministry- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) 6. Best Ganga Town- Varanasi 7. Cleanest Cantonment-Ahmedabad Cantonment, followed by Meerut Cantonment and Delhi Cantonment 8. Chhattisgarh has been awarded as the ‘Cleanest State’ of India for the 3rd consecutive year 9. Karnataka emerged as the ‘Fastest Mover State’ 10. Prerak Daaur Samman- This is a new performance category introduced under SS 2021, five cities – Indore, Surat, Navi Mumbai, New Delhi Municipal Council and Tirupati were categorized as ‘Divya’ (Platinum)
• Report on ‘Health Care Equity in Urban India’ = 1. It was released recently by Azim Premji University in collaboration with 17 regional NGOs across India 2. Life expectancy among the poorest is lower by 9.1 years and 6.2 years among men and women, respectively, compared to the richest in urban areas 3. The report explores health vulnerabilities and inequalities in cities in India 4. Close to 30% of people living in urban areas are poor
• All India Survey on Domestic Workers = 1. The Union Minister for Labour and Employment flagged off the first-ever All India Survey on Domestic Workers (DW) 2. Objectives- Estimate the number/proportion of DWs at the National and State levels, Household Estimates of Live-in/Live-out DWs, Average number of DWs engaged by different types of households 3. The survey would cover 37 States and Union Territories, covering 1.5 lakh households in 742 districts 4. Domestic workers (DWs) constitute a significant portion of total employment in the informal sector 5. According to the latest data on the e-Shram portal, around 8.8% of the registered 8.56 crore informal sector workers fall in the category of domestic workers 6. India has around 38 crore workers in the informal sector
• SDG Urban Index = 1. NITI Aayog under the Indo-German Cooperation released the inaugural Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Urban Index 2. It ranks 56 urban areas on 77 SDG indicators across 46 targets of the SDG framework 3. The urban areas are ranked on a scale of 0-100 4. Top Performers- Shimla, Coimbatore, Chandigarh, Thiruvananthapuram, and Kochi 5. Worst Performers- Dhanbad, Meerut, Itanagar, Guwahati and Patna
Global Nutrition Report
• First Nutrition for Growth Initiative Summit (N4G) in 2013.
• The first report was published in 2014.
• It acts as a report card on the world’s nutrition
• It is a multi-stakeholder initiative, consisting of a Stakeholder Group, Independent Expert Group and Report Secretariat
• Global Nutrition Report, 2021 = 1. India has made no progress on anaemia and childhood wasting 2. At the current rate of progress, the global nutrition targets will not be achieved by 2025 globally 3. Over half of Indian women in the age group 15-49 years are anemic 4. There has been a rise in anemic Indian women since 2016 from 52.6% to 53% in 2020 5. Childhood Wasting- Over 17% of Indian children under 5 years of age are affected (Wasting refers to children whose weight is the low-for-their height) 6. Child Stunting- Over 34% of children less than 5 years of age is still affected 7. India is meeting 7 of the 13 global nutrition targets which include sodium intake, raised blood pressure (both men and women), obesity (both men and women) and diabetes (both men and women)
• National Multidimensional Poverty Index = 1. NITI Ayog 2. The MPI seeks to measure poverty across its multiple dimensions and in effect complements existing poverty statistics based on per capita consumption expenditure 3. It has three equally weighted dimensions – health, education, and standard of living 4. The national MPI measure uses the globally accepted and robust methodology developed by the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and the UNDP 5. Bihar has the highest proportion of people of the state’s population followed by Jharkhand and Uttar Pradesh who are multidimensionally poor 6. Kerala registered the lowest population poverty levels, followed by Puducherry, Lakshadweep, Goa and Sikkim 7. Bihar also has the highest number of malnourished people followed by Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Chhattisgarh
• Project-15B Class Destroyer Ship = 1. The first ship of the four Project-15B state-of-the-art stealth guided-missile destroyers i.e. ‘Y 12704 (Visakhapatnam)’, was delivered to the Navy 2. The ship is constructed using indigenous steel DMR 249A and is amongst the largest destroyers constructed in India 3. Presently, under the P-15B (Visakhapatnam Class), a total of four warships are planned (Visakhapatnam, Mormugao, Imphal, Surat)
• Submarine ‘VELA’ = 1. The fourth Scorpene Submarine ‘INS Vela’ of Project P-75 has been delivered to the Indian Navy 2. The submarines in the Project-75 Scorpene-Class are powered by diesel-electric propulsion systems 3. The Scorpene-class is the Navy’s first modern conventional submarine series in almost two decades since INS Sindhushastra 4. Project 75 is a programme by the Indian Navy that entails building six Scorpene Class attack submarines
Diesel-Electric Submarines (SSK) Nuclear-Powered Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN) Nuclear-Powered Attack Submarine (SSN)
• Use electric motors charged by diesel engines to move.
• These engines require air and fuel to operate, which means they need to resurface more frequently, making them easier to detect.
• Of the SSKs, four are Shishumar Class, which were bought and then built in India in collaboration with the Germans.
• Eight are Kilo Class or Sindhughosh Class bought from Russia.
• Three are Kalvari Class Scorpene submarines (P-75) built at India’s Mazagon Dock in partnership with France’s Naval Group. • A slow-moving ‘bomber’ and a stealthy launch platform for nuclear weapons.
• The Arihant and three more SSBNs under construction are part of the Strategic Forces Command.
• SSNs can stay and operate under water almost indefinitely; their endurance is limited only by food supplies for the crew.
• They are also equipped with a range of tactical weapons, such as torpedoes, anti-ship cruise missiles and land-attack cruise missiles.
• India is among six nations that have SSNs, alongside the US, the UK, Russia, France and China.
• India has INS Chakra 2 SSN Submarine leased from Russia until 2022.
• PNS Tughril = 1. China handed over the first Type 054A/P frigate (warship) to Pakistan, named the PNS Tughril 2. It is the first hull of four Type 054 frigates being constructed for the Pakistan Navy 3. The ship is a technologically advanced and highly capable platform with enormous surface-to-surface, surface-to-air and underwater firepower, besides extensive surveillance potentials 4. It will strengthen Pakistan Navy's capabilities to respond to maritime challenges to ensure seaward defence in the Indian Ocean region
• 6th Edition of Shakti 2021 = 1. The sixth edition of the Indo-French Shakti 2021 (bilateral joint training exercise), will be conducted in November in Frejus, France 2. Platoon strength of a Gorkha Rifles Infantry Battalion will participate in the exercise 3. It will focus on Counter Terrorism operations in backdrop of semi-urban terrain under United Nations Mandate 4. Defence Exercises between India and France: Varuna – Naval exercise, Desert Knight-21 and Garuda (Air exercise), Shakti – Army exercise
Other Military Exercises
India and Thailand
• MAITREE (Army)
• SIAM BHARAT (Air Force)
• Indo-Thai CORPAT (Navy), which was conducted recently.
India and Singapore
• Bold Kurukshetra (Army)
• Joint Military Training (Air Force)
• SIMBEX (Navy)
• SITMEX-2021 = 1. Third edition of the trilateral naval exercise Singapore-India-Thailand Maritime Exercise (SITMEX) 2. Conducted in the Andaman Sea of the Indian Ocean 3. It is conducted annually, and was announced by India at Shangri-La Dialogue in June 2018 4. It aims to strengthen mutual confidence and develop common understanding and procedures towards enhancing the overall maritime security in the Indo-Pacific region 5. The exercise is in line with India’s SAGAR (Security and Growth for All in the Region) vision 6. The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) Shangri-La Dialogue is Asia’s premier defence summit, launched in 2002
• Light Combat Helicopter = 1. Prime Minister handed over the indigenously-built Light Combat Helicopter (HAL’s LCH), two small drones (‘SWITCH 1.0 UAV’ and ‘MR-20) built by Indian start-ups to the Air Force 2. LCH is a new addition to Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL's) helicopter division 3. The LCH incorporates advanced technologies and stealth features 4. The LCH is the only attack helicopter in the world that can land and take off at an altitude of 5,000 m with a considerable load of weapons and fuel 5. LCH will eventually be deployed along the Line of Actual Control with China, in addition to the AH-64E Apache helicopters in service 6. SWITCH 1.0 UAV, with its peerless capabilities of 1.5 hours flight time and 15 kms range at more than 4500 m take-off altitude 7. The MR-20 hexacopter drones have a capacity to ferry loads of up to 20kg
• Shakti = 1. Advanced Electronic Warfare Suite 2. The Prime Minister handed over to the Indian Navy 3. At a ceremony held as part of Rashtra Raksha Samarpan Parv on 19th November 2021 4. It will provide an electronic layer of defence against modern radars and anti-ship missiles 5. To ensure electronic dominance and survivability in the maritime battlefield 6. This system will replace the earlier generation EW Systems of the Indian Navy 7. The system has been integrated with the wideband Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and Electronic Counter Measure (ECM) 8. Designed By- Defence Electronics Research Laboratory (DLRL) Hyderabad 9. First Shakti system has been installed on-board INS Visakhapatnam and is being installed on-board Indigenous Aircraft Carrier, INS Vikrant
• Wang Yaping = 1. First Chinese Woman to Walk in Space 2. Wang Yaping completed a six-hour stint outside Tiangong space station 3. Tiangong- a space station being constructed in low Earth orbit by China 4. First module, Tianhe core module, was launched on April 29, 2021
• cOcOn 2021 = 1. Kerala Police’s annual Cyber security and hacking conference 2. The conference will be organised under the theme “Improvise, Adapt and Overcome” 3. cOcOn is a 13 years old platform, created with the aim of providing opportunities to educate, showcase, understand and spread awareness regarding the privacy, Information Security and data protection
• Haritha Karma Sena = 1. Green Action Force 2. Kerala government has proposed to form “Haritha Karma Sena (Green Action Force) to collect and segregate waste from city households for transporting it to solid waste treatment facility at Kochi Corporation 3. The Green Action Force will be created in all divisions of the civic body
• Bestu Varas = 1. Gujarati New Year 2. Observed on November 5 3. Observed on Pratipada Tithi of the Kartik month of Hindu calendar 4. Bestu Varas is related to lord Shri Krishna 5. It is believed that the day brings luck and profit throughout the year
• Telangana = 1. Telangana has been invited to participate in a conference which will be held virtually by Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) 2. The conference is being organised to discuss development of seed industry 3. FAO is a specialized agency of the United Nations 4. It makes effort to defeat hunger and improve nutrition & food security 5. It was founded in October 1945
• Logos of Darjeeling Toy Train = 1. India has finally registered the logos (two) of the iconic ‘Toy Train’ internationally as its intellectual property 2. The use of these logos anywhere in the world will now require written permission from India and the payment of a fee 3. This will put the Darjeeling Toy Train’s ‘Iron Sherpa’ blue steam locomotives on the same pedestal as the legendary transalpine Rhaetian Railway in Switzerland
• Kaho Village = 1. Arunachal Pradesh is planning to make a documentary on Kaho, a village on the China border to mark the 75th year of Independence 2. Kaho is the first village from the China border in Anjaw district 3. According to the 2011 census, Kaho has only 65 residents and a literacy rate of 64.15% 4. A documentary on the village and the locals who belong to the Meyor tribe will be made 5. One of seven villages in the Kibithoo block bisected by the Lohit river, Kaho had weathered the Chinese attack in 1962 6. Lohit River is a tributary to the Brahmaputra River
• Meyor is a small tribe constituting a small population that dwells in Kibithoo and Walong circles of the district.
• Meyors are also animists like the Mishmis but they have also adopted Mahayana Buddhism.
• Tribes of Arunachal Pradesh- Abor, Aka, Apatani, Dafla, Galong, Khampti, Khowa, Mishmi, Monpa, Momba, Any Naga tribes, Sherdukpen, Singpho”.
Indian Cities on UCCN
• Srinagar - Crafts and Folk Arts (2021)
• Mumbai – Film (2019)
• Hyderabad – Gastronomy (2019)
• Chennai- Creative city of Music (2017)
• Jaipur- Crafts and Folk Arts (2015)
• Varanasi- Creative city of Music (2015)
• Srinagar = 1. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designated Srinagar as a part of UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) 2. After Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Varanasi and Jaipur, Srinagar is the sixth Indian city to achieve this 3. Srinagar city has been designated the creative city in the field of Crafts and Folk Arts 4. Second city in India in this category after Jaipur 5. UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN)- created in 2004, to promote cooperation among cities which recognize creativity as a strategic factor in their urban development
• National Education Day = 1. Every year, 11th November is celebrated as National education day 2. Birth anniversary of independent India’s first education minister, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad 3. He donned many hats of being a journalist, freedom fighter, politician, and educationist 4. He was a proponent of Hindu Muslim unity, opposed to Partition 5. In 1912, he started a weekly journal in Urdu called Al-Hilal 6. The government banned Al- Hilal in 1914 then he started another weekly called Al-Balagh 7. In 1923, he was elected as the president of Indian National Congress 8. At an age of 35, he became the youngest person to serve as the President of the Indian National Congress 9. He again became the president of Congress in 1940 and remained in the post till 1946 10. In 1947, he became the first education minister of free India and remained at this post till his death in 1958
• Acharya Kripalani = 1. Birth Anniversary on 11th November 2. He was an independence activist, Indian politician and an Educationist 3. He was the President of Indian National Congress (INC) at the time of independence 4. One of the founders of the Kisan Mazdoor Praja Party (KMPP) after independence leaving congress 5. He was elected to the Lok Sabha in 1952, 1957, 1963 and 1967 as a member of Praja Socialist Party
• Rahibai Popere = 1. Padma Shri award was given to Rahibai Popere, popularly known as Seedmother, from Akole taluka of Ahmednagar, Maharashtra 2. For recognition of her work that has helped save hundreds of landraces (wild varieties of commonly grown crops) at the village level 3. Landraces refer to naturally occurring variants of commonly cultivated crops 4. Amid the threat of climate change, a challenge before scientists and policymakers is to develop varieties that can withstand both abiotic and biotic stresses 5. A hybrid crop is a result of two different varieties of plant being cross-pollinated
• Kartarpur Corridor = 1. The government is considering reopening the Kartarpur Sahib Gurudwara corridor to Pakistan 2. To allow Sikh pilgrims to cross over, more than 20 months after it was shut down due to the Covid-19 pandemic 3. One of the rare new initiatives between India and Pakistan 4. The project is also unique as visa-free “Human corridors” of this sort are normally used for emergency situations 5. It connects the Darbar Sahib Gurdwara in Narowal district of Pakistan with the Dera Baba Nanak shrine in Gurdaspur district in India’s Punjab province 6. The corridor was built to commemorate 550th birth anniversary celebrations of Guru Nanak Dev
• Purvanchal Expressway = 1. Starts from Chandsarai village and ends at Haidaria village on National Highway 31 in Ghazipur 2. The districts falling on this greenfield expressway are Lucknow, Barabanki, Amethi, Sultanpur, Ayodhya, Ambedkar Nagar, Azamgarh, Mau and Ghazipur 3. Implementing Agency-National Industrial Corridor Development and Implementation Trust (NICDIT)
United Nations World Tourism Organisation
• It is the United Nations Specialised Agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable, and universally accessible tourism.
• It was established in 1975 with headquarters in Madrid, Spain.
• Pochampally = 1. Village in Telangana 2. Selected as one of the Best Tourism Villages by United Nations World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) 3. Pochampally is also known as Bhoodan Pochampally to commemorate the Bhoodan Movement that was launched by Acharya Vinobha Bhave 4. Best Tourism Villages Initiative- It is a Pilot initiative by UNWTO to highlight those villages where tourism preserves cultures and traditions, celebrates diversity, provides opportunities, and safeguards biodiversity
• Puri Heritage Corridor Project = 1. The project is a part of the Augmentation of Basic Amenities and Development of Heritage and Architecture (ABADHA) scheme for developing Puri as a world-class heritage city 2. The project includes redeveloping major portions of the holy town and in the vicinity of the Jagannath temple for visitors and tourists 3. It is believed to have been constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty 4. Jagannath Puri temple is called ‘Yamanika Tirtha’ 5. Festival- The World famous Rath Yatra (Car Festival) & Bahuda Yatra 6. Other Monuments in Odisha- Konark Sun Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Tara Tarini Temple, Lingaraj Temple, Udaygiri and Khandagiri Caves
• Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace for 2021 = 1. Pratham, a civil society organisation has been conferred the Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development for 2021 2. Pratham is dedicated to improving the quality of education among underprivileged children in India and across the world 3. The Indira Gandhi Prize for Peace, Disarmament and Development was instituted in the memory of the former prime minister by a trust (Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust) in her name in 1986 4. Award of Rs 25 lakh along with a citation
Dr. Verghese Kurien (1921-2012)
• Father of White Revolution in India
• He is famous for his ‘Operation Flood’.
• He also played a key role in the establishment and success of Amul Brand.
• National Milk Day = 1. 26th November 2. Celebrated to commemorate the birth Anniversary of Dr. Verghese Kurien (Milk Man of India) 3. 2021 commemorates the 100th birth anniversary of Dr. Kurien 4. National Gopal Ratna Awards were conferred 5. Launched IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) Lab at Dhamrod, Gujarat and Hessarghatta, Karnataka 6. Every year, the first day of June is observed as World Milk Day
• National Cadet Corps = 1. 73rd anniversary on 28th November 2. The NCC was formed in 1948 on the recommendation of H. N. Kunzru Committee-1946 3. Expanded later on to include the Girls Division in 1949 4. Currently it has strength of around 14 lakh cadets from Army, Navy and Air Force wings 5. The NCC comes under the purview of the Ministry of Defence 6. NCC cadets have played an important role over the years in relief efforts during various emergency situations
• India’s 1st Certified Organic Fruit Kiwi = 1. India’s only certified organic kiwi from Ziro Valley Farms of Arunachal Pradesh was launched at a mega National Tribal Festival called Aadi Mahotsav 2. Arunachal Pradesh is the 1st Indian state, that obtained organic certification of kiwifruit” under the “Mission Organic Value Chain Development for North East Region (MOVCD-NER) 3. Aadi Mahotsav is an annual tribal festival, being organized by Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Limited (TRIFED) 4. Ziro Valley is a town and district headquarters of Lower Subansiri district in Arunachal Pradesh
• STREET project = 1. Launched by Kerala Tourism 2. At select spots across seven districts, in order to take tourism deep into the interiors and hinterland of the state 3. STREET - Sustainable, Tangible, Responsible, Experiential, Ethnic, Tourism hubs 4. This project will be implemented in the Public Private Partnership (PPP) mode
• Kanakadasa Jayanthi = 1.November 22, 2021 2. To pay tribute to Shri Kanaka Dasa, who was the 15th century poet, saint and social reformer 3. This festival is celebrated by people of Karnataka and Kuruba community in Karnataka 4. Early works of the saint include poems like Ramadhyana Mantra, Narasimha stotra, and Mohanatarangini
• World Toilet Day = 1. Observed on November 19, every year 2. To raise awareness on the importance of toilets and sanitation in our daily lives 3. World Toilet Day 2021 was observed under the theme- Valuing toilets
• World’s largest solar power park = 1. Bhadla Solar Park, located in Rajasthan, is the World’s largest solar power park 2. The Park comprises of 10 million solar panels at the park 3. These solar panels contribute to an operational capacity of 2245 MW 4. Bhadla region of the Jodhpur district is officially recognized as sandy, dry, and arid region with an area of around 45 km2
• Onake Obavva Jayanti = 1. Karnataka government 2. Started celebration of ‘Onake Obavva Jayanti’ on the 11th of November from the year 2021 3. Onake Obavva was a woman-soldier who had fought against Hyder Ali forces in Chitradurga in 18th century 4. She is celebrated in the state of Karnataka, along with Abbakka Rani, Kittur Chennamma and Keladi Chennamma 5. She belonged to Holayas (Chalavadi) community
• World’s first floating city = 1. South Korea to get world’s first floating city by 2025 2. The floating city project is a joint effort by the UN Human Settlement Programme (UN-Habit) and OCEANIX 3. The city will be built off the coast of Busan in South Korea 4. The floating city will have ‘flood-proof infrastructure’ and comprise several man-made islands to eliminate the risk of flooding
• World’s First ‘Bitcoin City’ = 1. El Salvador President Nayib Bukele has announced that the country is planning to build the world’s first Bitcoin City 2. It will be initially funded by bitcoin-backed bonds 3. Bitcoin City will not levy any taxes except for value-added tax (VAT)
• Lachit Divas = 1. It is celebrated annually in Assam on November 24 2. To mark the birth anniversary of the legendary Ahom army general Lachit Borphukan 3. Lachit Borphukan was born on 24 November 1622 in Charaideo and is known for his military intelligence in the Battle of Saraighat 4. The Battle of Saraighat was fought between the Ram Singh-led Mughal army and the Lachit Borphukan-led Ahom army in the year 1671 on the banks of the Brahmaputra river
• Boita Bandana Festival = 1. On Karthika Purnima, which is also known as Boita Bandana is celebrated at various water bodies of Odisha 2. The festival is the maritime tradition that is celebrated as a testament to the maritime trade history of Kalinga 3. Tradesmen and mariners known as sadhabas travelled on boitas (boats) to trade with distant island nations that share borders with the Bay of Bengal like Indonesia, Java, Sumatra and Bali