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Micro Current Affairs January 2022 PDF

Date: 31 January 2022

Indian Economy



●    GST Compensation Extension = 1. Many states have demanded that the GST compensation cess regime be extended for another five years 2. The provision for GST compensation is going to end in June 2022 3. The GST became applicable from 1st July 2017 after the enactment of the 101st Constitution Amendment Act, 2016.

●    One Nation-One Grid-One Frequency = 1. The Power Grid Corp. of India Ltd (PGCIL) celebrated the anniversary of the operationalization of One Nation-One Grid-One Frequency i.e National Grid 2. Initially, State grids were interconnected to form a regional grid, and India was demarcated into 5 regions namely Northern, Eastern, Western, North Eastern, and Southern regions 3. In 1991 North Eastern and Eastern grids were connected. Further, in 2003, the Western region grid was connected with it 4. In August 2006 North and East grids were interconnected thereby 4 regional grids are synchronously connected forming a central grid operating at one frequency 5. On 31st December 2013, the Southern Region was connected to the Central Grid. Thereby achieving 'One Nation, One Grid, One Frequency’ 6. Presently, the country has a total inter-regional transmission capacity of about 1,12,250 MW which is expected to be enhanced to about 1,18,740 MW by 2022

●    Core Sectors Industries = 1. The output of Eight Core Industries grew at 3.1 %, the slowest pace in eight months in November, indicating slowing momentum in the Indian economy 2. Eight core sectors are Coal, crude oil, natural gas, refinery products, fertilizer, steel, cement, and electricity 3. These comprise 40.27% of the weight of items included in the Index of Industrial Production (IIP) 4. Index of Industrial Production is an indicator that measures the changes in the volume of production of industrial products during a given period 5. Base Year for IIP is 2011-2012

●    India & Free Trade Agreements = 1. India is in dialogue with Israel for concluding a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) 2. FTA- It is a pact between two or more nations to reduce barriers to imports and exports among them 3. Bilateral free trade agreements of India are being negotiated with the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada 4. Comprehensive Economic Cooperation and Partnership Agreement (CECPA) between India and Mauritius 5. South Asia Preferential Trading Agreement (SAPTA) is for promoting trade amongst the member countries came into effect in 1995 6.  Asia Pacific Trade Agreement (APTA): Previously the Bangkok Agreement, it's a preferential tariff arrangement that aimed at promoting intra-regional trade

●    Green Energy Corridor = 1. Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approved 2. Scheme on Green Energy Corridor (GEC) Phase-II for Intra-State Transmission System (InSTS) 3. GEC-1-Phase 1 of the Green Energy Corridor is already under implementation in Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan 4. GEC-2- It will facilitate grid integration and power evacuation of approximately 20 GW of Renewable Energy (RE) power projects in seven States namely, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh 5. The transmission systems will be created over a period of five years from Financial Year 2021-22 to 2025-26 6. It aims at synchronizing the electricity produced from renewable resources, such as wind and solar, with the conventional power stations in the grid 7. It aims to achieve the target of 450 GW installed RE capacity by 2030
●    National Startup Awards 2021 = 1. Union Minister of Commerce & Industry 2. The second edition of National Startup Awards 2021 3. It was also announced that 16th January will be celebrated as National Start-up Day- Startup India Initiative was launched on this day in 2016 4. The second edition of the awards invited applications across 15 sectors and 49 sub-sectors 5. All applicants were evaluated against six broad parameters- Innovation, Scalability, Economic Impact, Social Impact, Environmental Impact, and Inclusiveness and Diversity 6. The winning startup founders will get a cash prize of Rs. 5 lakh and an opportunity to present their solutions to relevant public authorities and corporate 7. India is the third-largest start-up ecosystem globally (by number of start-ups) with more than 15,000 start-ups established in 2020.

●    National Technical Textiles Mission = 1. It was approved in 2020 by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) 2. To position the country as a global leader in technical textiles and increase the use of technical textiles in the domestic market 3. It aims at taking the domestic market size from USD 40 billion to USD 50 billion by 2024 4. It will be implemented for four years starting from 2020-2021
●    SaaRthi Mobile App = 1. Launched by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) 2. Saa₹thi – a mobile app on investor education 3. It aims to create awareness among investors about the basic concepts of the securities market 4. Securities are financial instruments issued to raise funds 5. SEBI is a statutory body established on 12th April 1992 in accordance with the provisions of the Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992.

●    Gherkins = 1. India has become the largest exporter of gherkins in the world 2. Gherkin is a term generally used to refer to a savoury pickled cucumber 3. Gherkins and commercial cucumbers belong to the same species (Cucumis sativus), but are from different cultivar groups 4. APEDA (Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority) has undertaken several initiatives for the development of infrastructure and enhancing the quality of processed gherkins 





●    India-Pakistan = 1. India and Pakistan have exchanged a list of their nuclear installations 2. The exchange was in accordance with the Article-II of the Agreement on Prohibition of Attacks against Nuclear Installations and Facilities between Pakistan and India 3. According to this agreement, both countries have to inform each other of the nuclear facilities 4. The agreement was signed in 1988 and ratified in 1991 5. The need for the agreement had been felt against the backdrop of Israel’s 1981 bombing of Iraq’s Osirak reactor near Baghdad

●    China’s new bridge on Pangong Tso = 1. The bridge is being constructed more than 20 km east of Finger 8 on the lake’s north bank – India says Finger 8 denotes the LAC 2. The Lake is overlooked by the Finger Area - a set of eight cliffs extending out of the Sirijap range (on the northern bank of Lake) 3. Pangong Tso, an endorheic lake, is 135 km long, of which more than two-thirds is under Chinese control 4.The bridge site is just east of Khurnak Fort in Rutog county where the PLA (People’s Liberation Army) has frontier bases 5. Historically a part of India, Khurnak Fort has been under Chinese control since 1958
Other 5 organs of the United Nations 
1.    The General Assembly (UNGA)
2.    The Trusteeship Council
3.    The Economic and Social Council
4.    The International Court of Justice
5.    The Secretariat

●    United Nation Security Council = 1. The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) got five new non-permanent members- Albania, Brazil, Gabon, Ghana, and the United Arab Emirates 2. Albania is joining for the first time while Brazil is taking an 11th turn 3. Gabon and Ghana each have been on the council three times before and the UAE once 4. The Security Council was established by the UN Charter in 1945 5. Its primary responsibility is to work to maintain international peace and security 6. The council is headquartered at New York 7. The five permanent members are the United States, the Russian Federation, France, China, and the United Kingdom 8. India, for the eighth time, has entered the UNSC as a non-permanent member last year (2021) and will stay on the council for two years i.e 2021-22

●    India-Spain = 1. The Union Cabinet has approved an Agreement between India and Spain on Cooperation and Mutual Assistance in Customs Matters 2. It is a legal framework for sharing of information between the Customs authorities of the two countries 3. It will help in making available, reliable, quick, and cost-effective information and intelligence for the prevention and investigation of Customs offences 4. Spain is India´s 7th largest trading partner in the European Union
●    India & Nepal = 1. The Union Cabinet has cleared a plan to build a new bridge connecting India and Nepal over the Mahakali River and link Dharchula in Uttarakhand with Nepal’s Dharchula 2. Mahakali River- Also known as Sharda river or Kali Ganga in Uttarakhand, It joins the Ghagra river in Uttar Pradesh, which is a tributary of Ganga 3. River Projects: Tanakpur hydro-electric project, Chameliya hydro-electric project, Sharda Barrage

●    India -Turkmenistan = 1. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between India and Turkmenistan on Cooperation in the field of Disaster Management 2. Turkmenistan shares borders with Kazakhstan in the north, Uzbekistan in the north and North-east, Iran in the South, and Afghanistan in the Southeast 3. India's 'Connect Central Asia' policy 2012 envisages deeper mutual relations with the region 4. India considers the TAPI pipeline (Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India) a 'key pillar' in its economic relations with Turkmenistan

●    Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) = 1. Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor Urjit Patel has been appointed vice-president of the Beijing-based AIIB 2. It is a multilateral development bank 3. To improve social and economic outcomes in Asia 4. It is headquartered in Beijing (China) and began its operations in January 2016 5. The AIIB has approved more loans for India than any other member of the bank 6. China is its biggest shareholder and India is the second-largest
●    Developing Country Tag to China = 1. China got the ‘developing country’ status at the World Trade Organisation (WTO) 2. The World Bank assigns the world’s economies to four income groups—low, lower-middle, upper-middle, and high-income countries 3. In its latest classification (2020-21), the World Bank has classified India as a lower-middle-income country

●    NATO-Russia Council = 1. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and Russia discussed the ongoing situation in Ukraine 2. NRC was established at the NATO-Russia Summit in Rome (Rome Declaration) on 28 May 2002 3. It replaced the Permanent Joint Council (PJC) 4. It is a mechanism for consultation, consensus-building, cooperation, joint decision and joint action, in which the individual NATO member states and Russia work as equal partners on a wide spectrum of security issues of common interest

●    India - UK = 1. India and the UK have launched the formal Free Trade Agreement (FTA) negotiations, that both countries envisage concluding by the end of 2022 2. Both countries agreed to an early harvest scheme or a limited trade agreement to lower tariffs 3. The agriculture and dairy sectors are considered sensitive sectors for India in trade talks
●    India’s Trade with China = 1. India’s trade with China in 2021 crossed USD125 billion with imports from China nearing a record USD100 billion 2. India’s biggest exports to China in recent years were iron ore, cotton and other raw material-based commodities 3. India has imported large quantities of electrical and mechanical machinery, Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs), auto components and, over the past two years, a range of medical supplies from oxygen concentrators to Personal Protective Equipments (PPEs) 4. The border standoff between India's and China's armies began in May 2020 after a violent confrontation in the Pangong lake areas 5. China's new law on land borders has come into effect from the new year (2022)

●    Davos Summit = 1. World Economic Forum 2. Prime Minister addressed the World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Davos Agenda 3. India saved many lives by exporting essential medicines and vaccines by following its vision of "One Earth, One Health" 4. India is the world's third-largest pharmaceutical producer 5. The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation established in 1971, based in Geneva, Switzerland 6. Founder and Executive Chairman: Klaus Schwab  
●    Indonesia = 1. Relocating its Capital 2. From slowly sinking Jakarta to a site 2,000 kilometers away on jungle-clad Borneo island that will be named "Nusantara" 3. Jakarta lies on the northwest coast of Java 4. The largest islands in Indonesia are Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), Sulawesi, and the Indonesian part of New Guinea (known as Papua or Irian Jaya)

●    Mauritius = 1. The Prime Minister of India and Mauritius jointly inaugurated the India-assisted social housing units’ project in Mauritius 2. In May 2016, India had extended a grant of USD 353 mn to Mauritius as Special Economic Package (SEP) to execute five priority projects identified by Mauritius, among others 3. The Metro Express Project, Supreme Court Building, New ENT Hospital, Supply of Digital Tablets to Primary School Children, and the Social Housing Project 4. Indian-origin people constitute nearly 70% of the population of Mauritius

●    Burkina Faso = 1.  Burkina Faso’s army announced that it had ousted President Roch Kabore, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the government 2. A former French colony, Burkina Faso has suffered chronic instability since gaining independence in 1960, including several coups 3. Landlocked Burkina Faso, one of West Africa’s poorest countries despite being a gold producer, has experienced numerous coups since its independence from France in 1960
●    The America COMPETES Act = 1. The United States has unveiled the ambitious America Creating Opportunities for Manufacturing, Pre-Eminence in Technology, and Economic Strength (COMPETES) Act, 2022 2. It proposes to open up new vistas for talented individuals from across the world with a new start-up visa 3. It would mean more opportunities in the US for Indian talent and skilled workers

●    Xiomara Castro = 1. Sworn in as the first woman president of Honduras 2. Honduras is a Central American country 3. Its capital is Tegucigalpa. It is located along the coast of the Caribbean Sea 4. Xiomara replaces President Orlando 5. The world-famous Maya civilization developed in the Honduras region 


Science & Technology


●    Solid-State Batteries = 1. Car manufacturer Volkswagen plans to have production running for solid-state batteries by 2025 via the partnership with QuantumScape 2. A solid-state battery has a higher energy density than a Lithium-ion battery 3. A solid-state battery can increase energy density per unit area since only a small number of batteries are needed 4. Lithium-ion Batteries- It uses an intercalated (Intercalation is the reversible inclusion or insertion of a molecule into materials with layered structures) lithium compound as one electrode material

●    Semiconductor Shortage = 1. There has been an abrupt and cascading shortage of semiconductors worldwide 2. Semiconductors are materials that have a conductivity between conductors (generally metals) and nonconductors or insulators (such as most ceramics) 3. Conductivity is the measure of the ease at which an electric charge or heat can pass through a material 4. Reasons for the Shortage- Work from Home due to Covid, False Forecasts, Stockpiling, Difficult Production
●    e-DNA = 1. Animals shed DNA through their breath, saliva, fur or feces into the environment, and these samples are called e-DNA 2. According to some studies, DNA floating in the air (i.e. e-DNA) can boost biodiversity conservation efforts across the world 3. Environmental DNA (e-DNA) can potentially identify and monitor terrestrial animals 4. Airborne e-DNA sampling is a biomonitoring method 5. Global EDNA Project- UNESCO launched the project to study the vulnerability of species to climate change at Marine World Heritage Sites in October 2021  
●    African swine fever = 1. Thailand has detected African swine fever in a surface swab sample collected at a slaughterhouse 2. It was first detected in Africa in the 1920s 3. Highly contagious and fatal animal disease
●    Solar Waste = 1. According to a report by the National Solar Energy Federation of India (NSEFI), India could generate over 34,600 tonnes of cumulative solar waste in India by 2030 2. NSEFI is an umbrella organisation of all solar energy stakeholders of India 3. Solar wastes are the electronic waste generated by discarded solar panels 4. While photovoltaic generates only about 3 % of global electricity, they consume 40 % of the world’s tellurium, 15 % of the world’s silver, a substantial chunk of semiconductor-grade quartz, and lesser but still significant amounts of indium, zinc, tin, and gallium

5. Related Indian Initiatives: Draft EPR Notification: Plastic Packaging Waste, Plastic Waste Management Amendment Rules, 2021, E-Waste (Management) Rules, 2016, E-waste (Management) Amendment Rules, 2018, Central Pollution Control Board
●    Millimetre Wave (mm Wave) bands = 1. Satcom Industry Association-India (SIA) has voiced concerns over the Government’s plan to include the Millimetre Wave (mm Wave) bands in the 5G spectrum auction 2. The 5G networks will operate in the mm Wave spectrum 3. It enables a new kind of network that is designed to connect virtually everyone and everything together including machines, objects, and devices

4. Internet speed in the high-band spectrum of 5G has been tested to be as high as 20 Gbps (gigabits per second), while, in most cases, the maximum internet data speed in 4G has been recorded at 1 Gbps 5. Millimetre Wave-Band: It is a particular segment of the radio frequency spectrum that ranges between 24 GHz and 100 GHz 6. They can cover greater distances and are proven to work efficiently even in urban environments, which are prone to interference
●    Meteorite (ALH) 84001 = 1. A new study published in the journal Science, offers an explanation for the existence of organic compounds on the surface of Meteorite called (ALH) 84001 2. It landed on Earth from Mars in 1984, and can possibly unravel the existence of life on Mars (Red Planet) 3. In 2021, NASA’s Perseverance rover collected the first sample of Martian rock 4. Scientists are interested in studying meteorites as examining them offers clues about the beginning of the solar system and maybe even the Earth 5. NASA’s OSIRIS-REx mission was launched in 2018 with the aim of reaching asteroid Bennu

●    Rare Earth Metals = 1. The US has proposed a law aiming to end China’s alleged “chokehold” on rare-earth metal supplies 2. The law would require the creation of a “strategic reserve” of rare earth minerals by 2025 3. They are a set of seventeen metallic elements- cerium (Ce), dysprosium (Dy), erbium (Er), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), holmium (Ho), lanthanum (La), lutetium (Lu), neodymium (Nd), praseodymium (Pr), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), scandium (Sc), terbium (Tb), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb), and yttrium (Y) 4. These minerals have unique magnetic, luminescent, and electrochemical properties 5. They are called 'rare earth' because earlier it was difficult to extract them from their oxides forms technologically 6. Exploration in India has been conducted by the Bureau of Mines and the Department of Atomic Energy 7. China has over time acquired global domination of rare earths, even at one point; it produced 90% of the rare earths the world needs 8. India has the world’s fifth-largest reserves of rare earth elements

●    Negative Ion Technology = 1. Authority for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS), Netherlands 2. Issued a statement identifying various negative ion wearable products containing more Radioactivity than legally permitted 3. Negative ion technology embeds negative ions in personal products and is currently being advertised as a means to maintain health, balance energy, and improve well-being

●    World Neglected Tropical Diseases Day = 1. Observed every year on 30th January 2. Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infections that are most common among marginalized communities in the developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas 3. NTDs are especially common in tropical areas where people do not have access to clean water or safe ways to dispose of human waste 4. Examples of NTDs are: snakebite envenomation, scabies, yaws, trachoma, Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease etc


Polity & Governance


●    Statehood Demand by Puducherry = 1. Chief Minister of Puducherry has demanded Statehood for the Union Territory (UT) of Puducherry 2. UT refers to those federal territories that are too small to be independent or are too different (economically, culturally, and geographically) to be merged with the surrounding states or are financially weak or are politically unstable 3. In the UTs Lieutenant Governors are appointed by the President of India as their administrators 4.  Puducherry, Jammu and Kashmir, and Delhi are the exception in this regard and have an elected legislature and government 5. At present, India has 8 UTs-- Delhi, Andaman, and Nicobar, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, and Daman and Diu, Jammu and Kashmir, Ladakh, Lakshadweep, and Puducherry 6. Puducherry UT was formed in 1962 out of the four former colonies of French India  

●    Faecal Sludge and Septage Management = 1. NITI Aayog report Faecal sludge and septage management in urban areas, Service and business models, by 2021 2. More than 700 cities/towns are in various stages of Faecal Sludge and Septage Management (FSSM) implementation 3. India has recognized the gaps in sanitation coverage and embarked purposefully to address them, becoming one of the first countries to announce a national policy on FSSM in 2017 4. India has continued to show its commitment towards FSSM through the launch of Open Defecation-Free (ODF) + and ODF++ protocols, an emphasis on FSSM in Swachh Survekshan, as well as financial allocations for FSSM across Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) missions

●    Prohibition Laws = 1. The Bihar Government has decided to use Drones to monitor illegal liquor manufacturing 2. Article 47: The Directive Principle in the Constitution of India states that “The state shall undertake rules to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health” 3. Alcohol is a subject in the State List under the seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution
●    National Air Sports Policy (NASP) = 1. The Ministry of Civil Aviation has released a draft National Air Sports Policy (NASP) that will require entities providing these services and their equipment to be registered, as well as be liable for penalties 2. The policy proposes a two-tier governance structure for air sports in the country, which will include an apex governing body called the Air Sports Federation of India (ASFI) and associations for each air sport 3. The ASFI will be an autonomous body under the Ministry of Civil Aviation and will represent India at the Lausanne (Switzerland)-headquartered Fédération Aéronaautique Internationale (FAI) 4. The vision of the policy is to make India one of the top air sports nations by 2030

●    Language of Courts in India = 1. The Gujarat High Court has asked a journalist facing contempt of court proceedings to speak only in English as that was the language in the higher judiciary 2. Article 343 of the Constitution of India provides that the official language of the Union shall be Hindi in the Devanagari script 3. Article 348(1)(a) states that unless Parliament by law provides otherwise, all proceedings before the Supreme Court and in every High Court shall be conducted in English 4. States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh have already authorized the use of Hindi in proceedings before their respective high courts

5. Official Languages Act 1963- It empowers the Governor of a state to, with the previous consent of the President, authorize the use of Hindi/the official language of the state, in addition to English, for the purpose of any judgment, decree, or order passed by the High Court of that state 6. The language of all courts subordinate to High Courts generally remains the same as the language on the commencement of the Civil Procedure Code 1908, till the state government determines
●    Apex organisation of marketing cooperatives for agricultural
●    Founded on 2nd October 1958 
●    Registered under the Multi-State Co-operative Societies Act, 2002
●    PMFME Scheme = 1. The Ministry of Food Processing Industries and NAFED (National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited) 2. Launched six, One District One Product (ODOP) brands under the Pradhan Mantri Formalisation of Micro food processing Enterprises (PMFME) Scheme 3. It aims to enhance the competitiveness of existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganised segment of the food processing industry

4. It will be implemented over a period of five years from 2020-21 to 2024-25 5. ODOP for the scheme will provide the framework for value chain development and alignment of support infrastructure 6. It is a centrally sponsored scheme with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crore 7. The expenditure under the scheme would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and the Himalayan States 60:40 ratio with UTs with the legislature, and 100% by Centre for other UTs

●    Smart cities and Academia Towards Action & Research (SAAR)” program = 1. Launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) 2. Joint initiative of MoHUA, National Institute of Urban Affairs (NIUA) 3.  15 premier architecture & planning institutes of the country will be working with Smart Cities to document landmark projects undertaken by the Smart Cities Mission 4. NIUA is an institute for research, training, and information dissemination in urban development and management, located in New Delhi, India, established in 1976 as an autonomous body under the Societies Registration Act
●    Increased Election Expenditure Limit = 1. The expenditure limit for candidates for Lok Sabha constituencies was increased from Rs 54 lakh-Rs 70 lakh (depending on states) to Rs 70 lakh-Rs 95 lakh, by the Election Commission of India (ECI) 2. The spending limit for Assembly constituencies was hiked from Rs 20 lakh-Rs 28 lakh to Rs 28 lakh- Rs 40 lakh (depending on states) 3. Under Section 77 of the Representation of the People Act (RPA), 1951, every candidate shall keep a separate and correct account of all expenditure incurred between the date on which they have been nominated and the date of declaration of the result
●    PRASHAD Projects = 1. The Ministry of Tourism inaugurated various components of the “Development of Govardhan, Mathura '' project under PRASHAD Scheme 2. The ‘National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual Augmentation Drive’ (PRASAD) was launched by the Ministry of Tourism in the year 2014-15 3. Name of the scheme was changed from PRASAD to “National Mission on Pilgrimage Rejuvenation and Spiritual, Heritage Augmentation Drive (PRASHAD)” in October 2017 4. Under the PRASHAD Scheme, several religious cities/sites have been identified for development such as Amaravati and Srisailam (Andhra Pradesh), Kamakhya (Assam), Parasuram Kund (Lohit District, Arunachal Pradesh), Patna and Gaya (Bihar), etc

●    IndiaSkills 2021 = 1. IndiaSkills 2021 Nationals, the country’s biggest skill competition, concluded recently 2. It is designed to demonstrate the highest standards of skilling 3. IndiaSkills Competition is held every two years with the support of state governments and industry 4. Nodal Agency- National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), working under the guidance of the Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship (MSDE) 5. Odisha topped the chart followed by Maharashtra and Kerala
●    NEAT Initiative = 1. The Ministry of Education has announced a new National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT 3.0) 2. To use technology for better learning outcomes in Higher Education 3. It is based on a Public-Private Partnership model between the Government and the Education Technology (Ed-Tech) companies of India 4. Under this, the government plans to distribute free coupons for an array of courses offered by ed-tech companies 5. Implementing Agency: All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) 5. AICTE- It was set up in November 1945 as a national-level apex advisory body

●    Open Data Week = 1. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA)  2. From 17th January 2022 to 21st January 2022 3. Open data is data that can be freely used, re-used, and redistributed by anyone
●    National Commission for Safai Karamcharis = 1. Union Cabinet has approved the extension of the tenure of the National Commission for Safai Karamcharis (NCSK) for three years beyond 31st March 2022 2. The NCSK was established in the year 1993 3. As per the NCSK (2020 data), a total of 631 people have died in the country while cleaning sewers and septic tanks in the last 10 years 4. 2019 saw the highest number of manual scavenging deaths in the past five years

●    Hindu Succession Act (HSA) of 1956 = 1. The Supreme Court (SC) has ruled that daughters will have equal rights to their father’s property even prior to the enactment of the Hindu Succession Act (HSA) of 1956 2. The Mitakshara school of Hindu law codified as the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 governed succession and inheritance of property but only recognised males as legal heirs 3. The 1956 Act was amended in September 2005 and women were recognised as coparceners for property partitions arising from 2005




●    Deforestation in Cerrado = 1. In Brazil 2. Deforestation in 2021 rose to the highest level since 2015 in Brazil’s Cerrado 3. Prompting scientists to raise alarm over the state of the world’s most species-rich savanna 4. The Cerrado is spread across several states of Brazil and is one of the world’s largest savannas, and is often called an “upside-down forest” 5. Cerrado is a major carbon sink that helps to stave off climate change 6. Deforestation is the permanent removal of trees to make room for something besides forest

7. Savanna, also spelled savannah, vegetation type that grows under distinct dry and wet season transitions, hot rainy, and cold dry seasons. Extreme diurnal temperature.  and is characterized by an open tree canopy (i.e. scattered trees) above a continuous tall grass understory. 8. The largest areas of savanna are found in Africa, South America, Australia, India, Myanmar (Burma)–Thailand region in Asia, and Madagascar. 9. Deciduous forests such as – acacia, Rain very less so thorny scrub (Australia)-mallee, mulga, spinifex are also found.

●    Gandhi Sagar Dam = 1. According to a new Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) report, Gandhi Sagar Dam on Chambal River (Madhya Pradesh) is in need of immediate repair 2. It is one of the five water reservoirs of national importance 3. India is ranked third in the world in terms of building large dams 4. Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project (DRIP Phase II): To improve the safety and performance of selected existing dams and associated appurtenances in a sustainable manner. 
●    Aquamation = 1. The Nobel Peace Prize winner Anglican archbishop and anti-apartheid campaigner Desmond Tutu died 2. Their body underwent aquamation, a green alternative to traditional cremation methods 3. It is a process in which the body of the deceased is immersed for a few hours in a mixture of water and a strong alkali in a pressurized metal cylinder and heated to around 150 degrees centigrade 4. The process was developed and patented in 1888 by Amos Herbert Hanson.
●    Bioenergy Crops = 1. A new study- Bioenergy Crops Create Cooling Effect on Cultivated Areas 2. Crops from which Biofuels are produced or manufactured are called Biofuel crops or Bioenergy Crops 3. “Energy crops" is a term used to describe biofuel crops 4. Wheat, corn, main edible oilseeds/edible oils, sugarcane, and other crops are among them  

●    Action Plan for Introduction of Cheetah in India = 1. Launched by the Union Minister for Environment, Forests and Climate Change 2. Under this 50 of these big cats will be introduced in the next five years 3. Launched at the 19th meeting of the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) 4. With help from the Wildlife Institute of India and the Wildlife Trust of India, the ministry will be translocating around 8-12 cheetahs from South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana 5. The big cats will live at Kuno Palpur National Park (Madhya Pradesh) 6. The cheetah is one of the oldest of the big cat species, with ancestors that can be traced back more than five million years to the Miocene era

●    Gharials = 1. The Assam government has issued a preliminary notification to make Orang National Park more than thrice its existing size for conserving Gharials 2. Gharials, sometimes called gavials, are a type of Asian crocodilian 3. India has three species of Crocodilians namely: Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus)-IUCN Red List- Critically Endangered, Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris)- IUCN- Vulnerable, Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)- IUCN- Least Concern 4. All the three are listed in Appendix I of CITES and Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 5. Habitat of Gharials- Freshwaters of the northern part of India, Chambal river (a tributary of Yamuna), Ghagra, Gandak River, Girwa river (Uttar Pradesh), the Ramganga river (Uttarakhand) and the Sone river (Bihar) 6. Conservation Efforts: Kukrail Gharial Rehabilitation Centre in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, National Chambal Sanctuary (Gharial Eco Park, Madhya Pradesh) 7. Threats: Increased river pollution, dam construction, massive-scale fishing operations and floods, Illegal sand mining, and poaching

Orang National Park
●    Also known as Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park and mini Kaziranga National Park.
●    Located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River in the Darrang and Sonitpur districts of Assam
Other Protected Areas in Assam
●    Dibru-Saikhowa National Park,
●    Manas National Park,
●    Nameri National Park,
●    Kaziranga National Park.
●    Dehing Patkai and Raimona National Parks
●    Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary

●    Domestic Hazardous Waste = 1. Indore is the only city in the country that safely handles its domestic hazardous waste 2. Domestic Hazardous Waste is any chemical or product that can cause serious illness or pose an environmental or health threat if improperly stored, transported or disposed of 3. Household waste is governed by the rules outlined in the Solid Waste Management Rules 2016
●    World’s sixth warmest year = 1. 2021 2. The data was collected by the US Space agency NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 3. Earth in 2021 was about 1.1 degrees Celsius warmer than the late 19th-century average, the start of the industrial revolution

●    4th Asia Ministerial Conference on tiger conservation = 1. The conference is an important event for reviewing progress towards the Global Tiger Recovery Programme 2. It was organized by Malaysia and Global Tiger Forum (GTF) 3. India is one of the Founding members of the intergovernmental platform of Tiger Range Countries – Global Tiger Forum 4. Conservation Status of Tiger- Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule I, IUCN Red List: Endangered, CITES Appendix I 5. India is home to 53 tiger reserves spread across 18 states 6. Guru Ghasidas (Chattisgarh) is the 53rd Tiger Reserve

●    Indian Environment Service (IES) = 1. The Supreme Court asked the Centre to establish a dedicated Indian Environment Service (IES) at the all-India level 2. The creation of IES was recommended by a committee headed by former Cabinet Secretary TSR Subramanian in 2014 3. It will act as an expert group in the public and quasi-governmental sectors over the next decades, regarding environmental matters 4. The constant environmental degradation, ecological imbalance, climate change, water scarcity, etc. are a great concern for India

●    Najafgarh Jheel = 1. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) has directed Delhi and Haryana to enforce the Environment Management Plan (EMP) for the rejuvenation and protection of the Najafgarh Jheel, a transboundary wetland 2. The top priority would be to notify the Najafgarh jheel and its area of influence under The Wetlands (Conservation and Management) Rules, 2017 3. Najafgarh Jheel is located in a natural depression in southwest Delhi, close to the Gurugram-Rajokri border on National Highway-48 4. The presence of 281 bird species, including several threatened ones such as Egyptian vulture, Sarus Crane, Steppe Eagle, Greater Spotted Eagle, Imperial Eagle and those migrating along the Central Asian Flyway has been reported at the lake 5. Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal life

●    Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) = 1. The officials of the Regional Rapid Transit System (RRTS) estimated that RRTS will reduce CO2 emissions by taking around 1.5 lakh private vehicles off the road 2. The corridor will start from Sarai Kale Khan in Delhi, pass through Ghaziabad, and reach Modipuram in Meerut (Uttar Pradesh) 3. The RRTS, the first of its kind in the national capital, will run at a speed of 100 km per hour and commuters will reach Meerut in 50-60 minutes 4. RRTS is a new, dedicated, high speed, high capacity, comfortable commuter service connecting regional nodes in NCR

●    Fly Ash Management and Utilisation Mission = 1. The National Green Tribunal (NGT) directed the constitution of a ‘Fly Ash Management and Utilisation Mission 2. To ‘coordinate and monitor issues relating to the handling and disposal of fly ash and associated issues’ 3. The Mission is to be jointly headed by the secretaries of the Union Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change (MoEF&CC), Union Ministry of Coal and Power, keeping on board chief secretaries of respective states where the mission is being implemented 4. The secretary of MoEF&CC will be the nodal agency

5. Fly ash is an unwanted unburnt residue of coal combustion in a coal thermal power plant 6. Fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminium oxide (Al2O3), ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and calcium oxide (CaO). Fly ash is used in brick making, road construction, soil upgradation (Because of its water retention capacity) etc.


Indices and Reports


●    Information Handling Services (IHS) Markit report = 1. India is likely to overtake Japan as Asia’s second-largest economy by 2030 2. Currently, India is the sixth-largest economy, behind the U.S., China, Japan, Germany and the U.K 3. IHS Markit is a global leader in information, analytics and solutions for the major industries and markets that drive economies worldwide 4. In terms of value, the size of the Indian economy stood at USD 2.7 trillion in 2021 5. India’s growth rate is projected to be 8.2% in 2021-22
●    Global Risks Report 2022 = 1.The Global Risks Report 2022, an annual report, was released by the World Economic Forum 2. It tracks global risk perceptions among risk experts and world leaders in business, government, and civil society 3. It examines risks across five categories: economic, environmental, geopolitical, societal, and technological.

Reports published by WEF
●    Energy Transition Index 
●    Global Competitiveness Report
●    Global IT Report- WEF along with INSEAD, and Cornell University publishes this report.
●    Global Gender Gap Report.
●    Global Risk Report
●    Global Travel and Tourism Report

●    Henley Passport Index 2022 = 1. India has been ranked 83rd in the most powerful passport report ‘Henley Passport Index 2022’ 2. India’s passport power has improved this quarter compared to 2021 climbing seven places from 90th rank last year 3. The Henley Passport Index is the original ranking of all the world’s passports according to the number of destinations their holders can access without a prior visa 4. It was launched in 2006 and includes 199 different passports 5. Japan and Singapore top the index 6. Afghanistan and Iraq continue to be in the 'worst passports to hold' category
●    Inequality Kills = 1. Oxfam report titled “Inequality Kills’’ was released 2. The report pointed out a stark income divide worsened by the Covid pandemic, globally and in India 3. The wealth of the world’s 10 richest men has doubled since the pandemic began 4. The incomes of 99% of humanity are worse off because of Covid-19 5. Inequality contributes to the death of at least one person every four seconds 6. India’s healthcare budget saw a 10% decline from RE (Revised Estimates) of 2020-21 7. There was a 6% cut in allocation for education 8. Budgetary allocation for social security schemes declined from 1.5% of the total Union budget to 0.6%
International Labour Organisation
●    It was created in 1919, as part of the Treaty of Versailles 
●    It became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1946
●    India is a founding member of the ILO with a total 187 member States
●    Headquarter: Geneva in Switzerland
●    World Employment and Social Outlook - Trends (WESO Trends) 2022 = 1. The International Labour Organisation (ILO) released a report 2. Global unemployment is expected to remain above pre-Covid-19 levels until at least 2023 3. The 2022 level is estimated at 207 million, compared to 186 million in 2019 4.

It is estimated that in 2022 around 40 million people will no longer be participating in the global labour force 5. The impact has been particularly serious for developing nations




●    DRDO = 1. Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has celebrated the 64th Foundation Day on 1st January, 2022 2. R&D (Research and Development) wing of the Ministry of Defence 3. It was formed in 1958 4. Various Programmes of DRDO- Integrated Guided-Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), Mobile Autonomous Robot System, Highest Terrestrial Centre in Ladakh 5. Recent Developments- Extreme Cold Weather Clothing System (ECWCS), ‘Pralay’, Controlled Aerial Delivery System, Pinaka Extended Range (Pinaka-ER) Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS), Supersonic Missile Assisted Torpedo System (SMART), Advanced Chaff Technology, Akash-NG & MPATGM
●    Sea Dragon 22 Exercise = 1. The US Sea Dragon 22 exercise began along with the navies of India, Australia, Canada, Japan and South Korea in the Pacific Ocean 2. Sea Dragon is a US-led multi-national exercise 3. Designed to practice and discuss Anti-submarine warfare tactics to operate together in response to traditional and non-traditional maritime security challenges in the Indo-Pacific region 4. It is an annual exercise.
●    Indigenous Aircraft Carrier = 1. The Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) 1, which will be called INS Vikrant once it enters service with the Indian Navy, began another set of sea trials 2. It is the largest and most complex warship to be built in India 3. It is likely to be commissioned in 2023

●    International Counter-Terrorism Conference 2022 = 1. Organized by the Global Counter-Terrorism Council (GCTC) 2. GCTC is an International Think-Tank Council 3. Earlier, in the 13th BRICS Summit held in 2021, the BRICS counter-terrorism action plan was adopted

4. Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act is the primary anti-terrorism law in force in India.




●    Rani Lakshmibai = 1. The Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister has announced that the Jhansi Railway Station in Uttar Pradesh will be known as Veerangana Lakshmibai Railway Station 2. She was born on 19th November 1828 in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 3. Lakshmibai’s childhood name was ‘Manikarnika’ and was affectionately addressed as ‘Manu’ 4. She had a son Damodar Rao, who died within four months of his birth 4. In 1853, when the Maharaja of Jhansi died, Lord Dalhousie refused to acknowledge the child and applied the Doctrine of Lapse, and annexed the state 5. Rani Lakshmibai fought bravely against the British so as to save her empire from annexation. She died fighting on the battlefield on 17th June 1858

●    Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport = 1. Tripura 2. The Prime Minister inaugurated the New Integrated Terminal Building of Maharaja Bir Bikram (MBB) Airport 3. The Maharaja Bir Bikram Airport was originally built by the US Air Force during the Second World War (1939-45) in collaboration with King Bir Bikram Kishore Manikya Debbarman of the erstwhile princely State 4. It was formerly known as the Agartala Airport and was renamed in 2018

●    Jagannath Temple Act, 1954 = 1. Odisha state cabinet has approved amendments to the Sri Jagannath Temple Act of 1954 2. In the year 1806, the then British government had issued regulations for the management of the Jagannath temple 3. Jagannath temple is referred to as the Juggernaut temple by the colonial rulers 4. Under these regulations, pilgrims who visited the temple were expected to pay taxes 5. After India gained Independence, the Jagannath Temple Act was introduced in the year 1952, which came into effect in 1954

6. Amendments: The power will now be delegated to temple administration and concerned officials for the sale and lease of land in the name of Jagannath temple 7. The temple is believed to have been constructed in the 12th century by King Anatavarman Chodaganga Deva of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty 8. This temple was called the “White Pagoda” and is a part of Char Dham pilgrimages (Badrinath, Dwaraka, Puri, Rameswaram)
●    Maya Civilization = 1. According to a new study, the Maya civilization may have had access to nearly 500 drought-resistant edible plants 2. The Maya are an indigenous people of Mexico and Central America 3. The rise of the Maya began about 250 CE, and what is known to archaeologists as the Classic Period of Mayan culture lasted until about 900 CE 4. Scientists have long suspected that drought pushed its people towards starvation

Ancient Civilizations
●    The Incan Civilization- Ecuador, Peru, and Chile
●    The Aztec Civilization- Mexico
●    The Roman Civilization- Rome
●    The Persian Civilization- Iran
●    The Ancient Greek Civilization- Greece
●    The Chinese Civilization- China
●    The Ancient Egyptian Civilization- Egypt
●    The Indus Valley Civilization- Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India
●    The Mesopotamian Civilization- Iraq, Syria, and Turkey
●    Veer Baal Diwas = 1. The Prime Minister of India has declared that 26th December shall henceforth be marked as “Veer Baal Diwas” 2. To pay homage to the courage of the “Sahibzades”, four sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the last Sikh guru 3. Sahibzada Jorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh are among the most revered martyrs in Sikhism 

●    World Hindi Day = 1. World Hindi Day (WHD) is celebrated every year on 10th January 2. This year (2022) on the occasion UNESCO's World Heritage Centre (WHC) has agreed to publish Hindi descriptions of India's world heritage sites on the WHC website 3. WHC was established in 1992 to coordinate all matters related to World Heritage 4. It was first celebrated in 2006 5. The World Hindi Secretariat building was inaugurated in Mauritius in 2018

●    S. Somanath = 1. An eminent rocket scientist has been appointed as the Chairman of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Space Secretary 2. He has played a major role in the development of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk-III (GSLV Mk-III) 3. He is an expert in the area of system engineering of launch vehicles
Other Classical Dances in India
●    Bharatanatyam from Tamil Nadu
●    Kathakali, from Kerala
●    Kuchipudi, from Andhra Pradesh
●    Odissi, from Odisha
●    Sattriya, from Assam
●    Manipuri, from Manipur
●    Mohiniyattam, from Kerala

●    Pandit Munna Shukla = 1. Famous Kathak dancer Pandit Munna Shukla died 2. His most noted works include the dance-drama Shan-e-Mughal, Inder Sabha, Ameer Khusro, Anga Mukti, Anvesha, Bahar, Tratak, Kraunch Badh, Dhuni, among others 3. The word Kathak has been derived from the word Katha which means a story 4. Under the patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, it grew into a major art form 5. Kathak is the only form of classical dance wedded to Hindustani or North Indian music

●    Makar Sankranti = 1. Harvest festivals Makar Sankranti, Uttarayan, Bhogi, Magh Bihu, and Ponga 2. Denotes the entry of the sun into the zodiac sign of Makara (Capricorn) as it travels on its celestial path 3. As a part of the official celebration of 'Uttarayan', the Gujarat government has been hosting the International Kite Festival since 1989
●    Indian Army Day = 1. Army Day is celebrated every year on 15th January in India to commemorate the jawans and the Indian Army 2. On 15th January 1949, Field Marshal Kodandera M. Cariappa, who was then a Lieutenant General, took over as the first Indian Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army from General Sir Francis Butcher, the last British person to hold that post 3. The Indian Army was founded almost 126 years ago by the British on 1st April, 1895 4. India's army is considered the world's fourth strongest army

●    Thiruvalluvar = 1. Thiruvalluvar Day- usually observed either on 15th or 16th January in Tamil Nadu and is a part of Pongal celebrations 2. Thiruvalluvar, also called Valluvar, was a Tamil poet-saint 3. He is thought to be linked to Jainism 4. He had contributed the Tirukkural or ‘Kural’ to the Sangam literature 5. Tirukkural is comprised of 133 sections of 10 couplets each is divided into three books: Aram (virtue), Porul (government and society), and Kamam (love)
●    Volcanic Eruption in Tonga = 1. A volcano erupted in the southern Pacific Island of Tonga, which triggered Tsunami waves around the Pacific 2. The Tonga Islands occur along the Ring of Fire 3. It is an Undersea Volcanic Eruption consisting of two small uninhabited islands, Hunga-Ha’apai and Hunga-Tonga 4. Huge volcanic eruptions can sometimes cause temporary global cooling as sulfur dioxide is pumped into the stratosphere

Commonwealth War Graves Commission
●    CWGC is an intergovernmental organisation.
●    Six member-states-Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom
●    Ensures the men and women who died in the wars will never be forgotten 
●    It was formed in 1917 as the Imperial War Graves Commission. 
●    Its headquarters is situated in Maidenhead, UK.

●    Kohima War Cemetery = 1. United Kingdom-based Commonwealth War Graves Commission (CWGC) has listed five sites with unusual features 2. These sites are associated with World War I and World War II 3. Nagaland capital Kohima is included in the list because of the Kohima War Cemetery 4. The Kohima War Cemetery is one of 23,000 World War graves across the continents maintained by the CWGC 5. On 3rd April 1944, a Japanese force of 15,000 attacked Kohima and its 2,500-strong force 6. Those who had fallen in the defence of Kohima were buried on the battlefield, which later became a permanent CWGC cemetery

●    Lala Lajpat Rai = 1. Lala Lajpat Rai’s birth anniversary is celebrated on 28th of january every year 2. He was born on 28th January, 1865 in a small village named Dhudike in Punjab’s Ferozepur district 3. He was also called ‘Punjab Kesari’ and 'Lion of Punjab' 4. Along with Bipin Chandra Pal and Bal Gangadhar Tilak, he formed the Lal-Bal-Pal trio of extremist leaders

●    Statehood Day of Himachal Pradesh = 1. 25th Janurary 2. On 18th December, 1970 the State of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by Parliament and the new state came into being on 25th January, 1971  
●    World Leprosy Day = 1. Every year, the World Leprosy Day is celebrated on the last Sunday of January 2. The day aims to create awareness about the disease 3. In 2022, the WHO launched the “United in Dignity” campaign to honour the people suffering from the disease 4. Leprosy is also called Hansen disease, caused by the bacteria called Mycobacterium Leprae
●    India’s First Geo Park = 1. First geological park of India will be built in Lamheta, Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh 2. Geopark is a unified area, which advances the protection and use of geological heritage in a sustainable manner 3. Lameta Formation also called Infratrappean Beds is a sedimentary geological formation found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Gujarat
●    Rafael Nadal = 1. Won his 21st Grand Slam title 2. He beat Daniil Medvedev at the Australian Open Final to grab his Grand Slam 3. With this Nadal has become the first player to win 21 grand slam titles 4. Roger Federer of Switzerland and Novak Djokovic of Serbia have won 20 Grand slams
●    Anantha Nageswaran = 1. New Chief Economic Advisor of India 2. He is a former member of Prime Minister Economic Advisory Council 3. Nageswaran has taught in B – schools in India and Singapore 4. The post of CEA was lying vacant after Dr Krishnamurthy Subramanian left office in December 2021
●    India’s first Graphene Innovation Centre = 1. The first Graphene innovation centre of the country is set up in Kerala 2. Graphene is the strongest material in the world and also, it is the thinnest material

●    Param Vishisht Seva Medal = 1. The Olympic Gold medal winner Neeraj Chopra was honoured with the Prama Vishisht Seva Medal 2. The award was constituted in 1960 3. It is awarded to peace time services 4. It is equivalent to Sarvottam Yudh Seva Medal
●    Shivangi Singh = 1. India’s first Woman Rafale pilot 2. She was a part of the Indian Air Force Tableau at the Republic Day celebrations 3. She is the only second woman pilot to participate in the Indian Air Force Tableau 4. Fighter Jet pilot Bhawna Kanth was the first woman pilot to participate in the IAF tableau

●    Kokborok Day = 1. Kokborok Day, also known as the Tripuri Language Day is annually celebrated across the Indian State of Tripura on 19th January with an aim to develop the Kokborok Language 2. The day commemorates the initial recognition of Kokborok as the official language in 1979 3. Kokborok, along with Bengali and English, was declared an official language of the state of Tripura, India by the state government
●    Kachai Lemon Festival = 1. The 18th edition of the two days long Kachai Lemon Festival began in Manipur at the Local Ground of Kachai Village in Ukhrul district 2. This year the festival is being organised under the theme ‘Organic Kachai Lemon for Safe Environment and Rural Transformation’ 3. Kachai Lemon of Manipur has been accorded Geographical Indication (GI) registration tag and is widely grown in the Kachai Village of Ukhrul district

●    Losoong (Namsoong) Festival = 1. Losoong (Namsoong) is annually celebrated across the Indian State of Sikkim on the 18th day of the 10th month of the Tibetan Lunar Calendar 2. It also marks the beginning of harvest season 3. The losoong festival is celebrated as Sonam Losoong, by the Sikkimese Bhutia and as Namsoong by the Lepchas 4. The festival is also celebrated in Nepal and Bhutan
●    Revenue village = 1. Uttar Pradesh government declared four villages located near the Nepal border in the district as revenue villages 2. These four villages are Bhavanipur, Tedhia, Dhakia and Bichhia located in Mihinpurwa tehsil of the district

3. All these villages are Vantangiya villages 4. The Vantangiya’ community comprises people brought from Myanmar during the colonial rule to plant trees 5. A revenue village is a small administrative region with defined borders
●    India’s first paperless court = 1.  The Kerala High Court is all set to become India’s first paperless court

2. Cases e-filed will be processed, verified, and cured through e-mode, stakeholders can avail the option of hearing of cases in hybrid mode involving physical hearing as well as through videoconferencing, and orders and judgments will also be delivered through e-mode
●    Ganjam district = 1. Odisha’s Ganjam has declared itself a child marriage free district, the first in the State 2. Ganjam had started a programme Nirbhaya Kadhi (Fearless bud)

3. All heads of educational institutes were directed to inform the administration if any girl aged between 12 and 18 remained absent from school for five days