• Import Duty on Cotton = 1. Tamil Nadu Chief Minister has requested the Union Textiles Minister to remove import duty levied on cotton 2. The textile industry is the second-largest employment provider in the state 3. Tamil Nadu accounts for 1/3rd size of the textile business of the country 4. Demands- Removal of the 11% Import duty levied on cotton imports, because of the grave situation of cotton and yarn price volatility 5. India is the largest producer of cotton in the world and the third-largest exporter 6. It is also the largest consumer of cotton in the world 7. India produces about 6 million tons of cotton every year which is about 23% of the world's cotton 8. India produces about 51% of the total organic cotton production of the world
• Kharif Crop requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
• Drought–resistant crop ideal for arid climates.
• Occupies 2.1% of the world’s arable land, meets 27% of the world’s textiles needs.
• Temperature: Between 21-30°C.
• Rainfall: Around 50-100cm.
• Soil Type: Well-drained black cotton soil (Regur Soil)
• Products: fiber, oil, and animal feed.
• Top Cotton Producing Countries: India > China > USA
• Top Cotton Producing States in India: Gujarat > Maharashtra > Telangana > Andhra Pradesh > Rajasthan.
• Four cultivated species of cotton: Gossypium arboreum, G.herbaceum, G.hirsutum, and G.barbadense.
• Natural Farming = 1. NITI Aayog has conducted a national workshop on Natural Farming 2. The Zero Budget Natural Farming (ZBNF) is the most popular model in India 3. Natural Farming- chemical-free farming and livestock based 4. This farming approach was introduced by Masanobu Fukuoka, a Japanese farmer, and philosopher, in his 1975 book The One-Straw Revolution 5. In India, Natural farming is promoted as Bhartiya Prakritik Krishi Paddhati Programme (BPKP) under Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY) 6. Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana- It is an elaborated component of Soil Health Management (SHM) of the major project National Mission of Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)
• PM MITRA Parks = 1. The Government has approved the setting up of 7 PM Mega Integrated Textile Region and Apparel (PM MITRA) Parks in Greenfield/Brownfield sites with an outlay of Rs. 4445 cr for a period of seven years up to 2027-28 2. Government of India is implementing the Scheme for Integrated Textile Park (SITP) 3. Each Park will have an incubation centre, a common processing house, and a common effluent treatment plant 4. The centre will provide development capital support for the development of common infrastructure of Rs 500 crore for each Greenfield MITRA park and up to Rs 200 crore for each Brownfield park 5. An additional Rs 300 crore will be provided as Competitiveness Incentive Support for the early establishment of textiles manufacturing units in each of these parks
• Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) = 1. To improve the recovery of bad loans in the agriculture sector, leading banks have made a pitch for setting up an Asset Reconstruction Company (ARC) specifically to deal with collections and recovery of farm loans 2. It is a specialized financial institution that buys the Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) from banks and financial institutions so that they can clean up their balance sheets 3. This helps banks to concentrate on normal banking activities
• Dam Safety Bill, 2019 = 1. The Parliament has cleared the Dam Safety Bill, 2019 for surveillance, inspection, operation, and maintenance of all specified dams across the country 2. National Committee on Dam Safety-The National Committee on Dam Safety will be constituted and will be chaired by the Chairperson, Central Water Commission 3. Functions of the Committee will include formulating policies and regulations regarding dam safety standards and prevention of dam failures 4. National Dam Safety Authority- The Bill also envisages the setting up of a National Dam Safety Authority to be headed by an officer, not below the rank of an Additional Secretary, to be appointed by the central government
• Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maan-Dhan Pension Scheme = 1. According to the Ministry of Labour & Employment, nearly 46 lakh Unorganised Workers (UW) have been registered under the Pradhan Mantri Shram Yogi Maandhan (PM-SYM) pension scheme 2. PM-SYM is a Central Sector Scheme administered by the Ministry of Labour and Employment and implemented through Life Insurance Corporation of India and Community Service Centers (CSCs) 3. Eligibility- Should be an Unorganised Worker (UW), Monthly Income Rs 15000 or below, Entry age between 18 and 40 years, Should possess a mobile phone, savings bank account and Aadhaar number, Should not be covered under New Pension Scheme (NPS), Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) scheme or Employees’ Provident Fund Organisation (EPFO), Should not be an income taxpayer
• Bank-NBFC Co-lending = 1. Several banks have entered into co-lending 'master agreements' with registered Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) 2. In 2020, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) allowed the co-lending model based on a prior agreement 3. The RBI had announced co-origination of loans” by banks and NBFCs for lending to the priority sector 4. The primary focus of the ‘Co-Lending Model’ (CLM) is to “improve the flow of credit to the unserved and underserved sector of the economy
• Algo Trading = 1. The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) has issued a discussion paper on regulating Algorithmic or Algo Trading, or trades generated out of automatic execution and logic 2. Algo Trading - Almost everything in the digital world is based on algorithms. Algorithms leverage user data, behaviour and usage patterns, and take in pre-specified instructions to achieve certain goals 3. According to SBI's proposal All orders emanating from an APIs (Application Programming Interface), should be treated as an algo order
• SEBI Bans Derivative Trade in Agriculture Commodities = 1. The regulator has banned derivative contracts trade in chana, wheat, paddy (non-basmati), soyabean and its derivatives, mustard seed and its derivatives, crude palm oil, and moong for a year with immediate effect 2. On the future’s platform of National Commodities and Derivatives Exchange (NCDEX) for a year 3. Derivatives are the instruments that include security derived from a debt instrument share, loan, risk instrument or contract for differences of any other form of security and a contract that derives its value from the price/index of prices of underlying securities 4. NCDEX is an online commodities exchange dealing primarily in agricultural commodities in India, It is a public limited company, established on 23rd April 2003 under the Companies Act, 1956
• Spices Statistics at a Glance 2021 = 1. A book released by the Minister for Agriculture and Farmers Welfare 2. Highlights the growth achieved in the production of spices and increase in area during the last seven years from 2014-15 to 2020-21 in the country 3. India is the world's largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices 4. Spices Board (Ministry of Commerce and Industry) is the flagship organization for the development and worldwide promotion of Indian spices, It was established by the Spices Board Act, 1986
• Soya meal = 1. The government has notified, under the Essential Commodities Act 1955, to declare 'soya meal' as an essential commodity up to 30th June 2022 2. Soybean meal is the most important protein source used to feed farm animals 3. A by-product of the extraction of soybean oil 4. The ECA Act 1955, was legislated at a time when the country was facing a scarcity of foodstuffs due to persistent low levels of food grains production
• Gig Economy = 1. The surge in demand for gig workers 2. A gig economy is a free market system in which temporary positions are common and organisations contract with independent workers for short-term engagements 3. According to a report by Boston Consulting Group, India’s gig workforce comprises 15 million workers employed across industries such as software, shared services, and professional services 4. An estimated 56% of new employment in India is being generated by the gig economy companies
• Consumer Protection (Direct Selling) Rules, 2021 = 1. Centre has notified Consumer Protection (Direct Selling) Rules, 2021 for the direct selling industry 2. It prohibits the promotion of pyramid schemes and participation in money circulation schemes 3. The rules lay down duties and obligations of both direct selling entities and their direct sellers to safeguard the interest of consumers 4. Existing direct selling companies will need to ensure they comply with the rules within 90 days 5. It directed State governments to set up a mechanism to monitor or supervise the activities of direct sellers and direct selling entities
• G20’s Troika = 1. India joined the G20 ‘Troika’ and with this India has started the procedure for taking over the G20 presidency next year 2. ‘Troika’ refers to the top grouping within the G20 that consists of the current, previous, and the incoming presidencies-Indonesia, Italy, and India 3. India will assume the G20 presidency on 1st December 2022 from Indonesia 4. Italy hosted the G20 summit during October 30-31, 2021 5. G20- It is an informal group of 19 countries and the European Union (EU), with representatives of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank; it does not have a permanent secretariat or Headquarters 6. India is a founding member of the G20
• Global Gateway Plan = 1. European Union 2. To mobilize EURO 300 billion by 2027 in public and private infrastructure investment around the world 3. It is seen as a response to China’s Belt and Road strategy 4. Team Europe approach- offer its partners response to the urgent needs: To develop sustainable and high-quality digital, climate and energy and transport infrastructures, and Strengthen health, education, and research systems across the world 5. To finance the project, the EU will use its European Fund for Sustainable Development Plus
• India-Russia Summit = 1. The Russian President Vladimir Putin visited India 2. The meeting is significant as it was the first 2+2 meeting between the foreign and defense ministers of the two countries 3. The two sides signed two contracts for the manufacture of nearly 600,000 AK-203 rifles under a joint venture in Amethi, Uttar Pradesh 4. Beyond defense sales, a Reciprocal Exchange of Logistics Agreement (RELOS), as well as a Navy to Navy cooperation MoU are at advanced stages of conclusion 5. Russia has been one of the largest arms exporters to India 6. Even as Russia’s share in India’s arms imports fell by over 50% in the last five-year period compared to the previous five years (2011–2015)
• International Solar Alliance (ISA) = 1. The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has granted Observer Status to the International Solar Alliance (ISA) 2. The ISA is an intergovernmental treaty-based organization with a global mandate to catalyze solar growth by helping to reduce the cost of financing and technology 3. ISA is the nodal agency for implementing One Sun One World One Grid (OSOWOG) 4. United Nation General Assembly- main deliberative, policymaking, and representative organ of the UN, All 193 Member States of the UN are represented in the General Assembly
• Balochistan = 1. There have been continuous protests in Gwadar, Balochistan against mega-development plans of the port city as part of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor 2. Balochistan is one of the four provinces of Pakistan 3. It is the least populated even though it is the largest province in terms of land size 4. Populated in ethnic Baloch people 5. Rich in natural gas and oil 6. In the year 1948, the Pakistan government, with a combination of military and diplomacy, took control of the region and made it into a part of Pakistan
• RATS-SCO = 1. Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (RATS-SCO) 2. India assumed the Chairmanship of Council of RATS-SCO in 2021 for a period of one year 2. SCO-RATS is a permanent body of the SCO and is intended to facilitate coordination and interaction between the SCO member states in the fight against terrorism, extremism and separatism 3. SCO was created in 2001 4. Prior to the creation of SCO in 2001, Kazakhstan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan were members of the Shanghai Five 5. Following the accession of Uzbekistan to the organization in 2001, the Shanghai five was renamed the SCO 6. SCO has two Permanent Bodies - SCO Secretariat in Beijing and Executive Committee of the Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) in Tashkent 7. India and Pakistan became members in 2017
• UNCLOS = 1. India reiterated its support for the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) 2. India is a state party to UNCLOS 3. UNCLOS, 1982 is an international agreement that establishes the legal framework for marine and maritime activities 4. It divides marine areas into five main zones namely- Internal Waters, Territorial Sea, Contiguous Zone, Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and the High Seas
• Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty = 1. The Union Cabinet has approved the Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters between the Government of India and Poland 2. For providing international cooperation and assistance 3. India has entered into Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties/Agreements with 42 countries (November 2019)
• 3rd India-Central Asia Dialogue = 1. Held in New Delhi 2. A ministerial-level dialogue between India and the Central Asian countries 3. Central Asian countries- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan 4. Key Points- International North-South Transport Corridor, Connectivity Projects, Situation of Afghanistan, Counter Terrorism Efforts, Line of Credit, Post-pandemic Recovery, Restoration of Tourism 5. All the countries participating in the dialogue, except for Turkmenistan, are also members of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
• Trincomalee Oil Tank Farm Deal = 1. India and Sri Lanka are going to sign the long pending deal to jointly develop the Trincomalee oil tank farms 2. The oil tank farm was built by the British during World War II as a refuelling station 3. Located in ‘China Bay’ in close proximity to the internationally coveted deep water natural harbour of Trincomalee 4. It comprises 99 storage tanks, with a capacity of 12,000 kilolitres each, spread across Lower Tank farm and Upper Tank Farm 5. In 2003, Indian Oil Corporation set up its Sri Lankan subsidiary called Lanka IOC, to work on this oil farm
• Mission Sagar = 1. Indian Naval Ship (INS) Kesari has reached the Port of Maputo, Mozambique to deliver 500 tonnes of food aid to support the efforts of Government of Mozambique to cope with ongoing drought and concurrent challenges of pandemic 2. This is the eighth such deployment in consonance with the Prime Minister’s vision of Security And Growth for All in the Region (SAGAR) 3. Launched in May 2020, 'Mission Sagar’ was India’s initiative to deliver Covid-19 related assistance to the countries in the Indian Ocean Littoral states 4. The countries included were Maldives, Mauritius, Madagascar, Comoros and Seychelles 5. In November 2020, as part of Mission Sagar-II, INS Airavat delivered food aid to Sudan, South Sudan, Djibouti and Eritrea 6. These deployments were conducted in solidarity with India’s extended Maritime Neighbourhood
• Chile = 1. The South American country of Chile has formed a Constitution Convention to write a new constitution to tackle a "climate and ecological emergency 2. Chilean politicians want to leverage its lithium to make the country richer 3. The new constitution will focus on lithium mining and its regulation 4. Chile's extremely rich in lithium (second-largest lithium producer after Australia) - an essential component of batteries that support almost all modern smart devices
Science & Technology
• Global Carbon Project (GCP) study = 1. The global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are set to soar 4.9% in 2021, compared with the previous year 2. Largest emitter of greenhouse gases- Energy Sector (with a share of 40%) 3. In this context, nuclear energy is touted as a non-polluting option
Global Carbon Project
• The Global Carbon Project was formed in 2001 to help the international science community to establish a common, mutually agreed knowledge base that supports policy debate and action to slow the rate of increase of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
• It is a Global Research Project of Future Earth and a research partner of the World Climate Research Programme.
• The Global Carbon Project works collaboratively with the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the World Climate Programme, and the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change and Diversitas, under the Earth System Science Partnership.
• Gaganyaan Mission = 1. The Union Minister of Atomic Energy and Space informed that the crewed Gaganyaan mission will finally be launched in 2023 2. The country's first space station is likely to come up by 2030 3. Under the Gaganyaan schedule- Three flights will be sent into orbit, there will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight 4. It will circle Earth at a low-earth-orbit at an altitude of 300-400 km from the earth for 5-7 days 5. With that launch, India will be in the elite club of nations (America, China, and Russia) 6. GSLV Mk III, also called the LVM-3 (Launch Vehicle Mark-3,) the three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle, will be used to launch Gaganyaan 7. This will be followed by the second uncrewed mission at the end of 2022 carrying ‘Vyommitra’, a spacefaring human-robot developed by Isro, and finally the first crewed Gaganyaan mission in 2023
Other Upcoming Mission
• Shukrayaan Venus Mission (For 2023) - The Shukrayaan orbiter will be the first mission to Venus by the ISRO and will study the planet for four years
• L-1 Aditya Solar (For 2022-23) - It is India’s first scientific expedition to study the Sun, It will be ISRO’s second space-based astronomy mission after AstroSat, which was launched in 2015
• Chandrayaan-3 Missions (For 2022-23) - The Chandrayaan-3, a follow-up of the Chandrayaan-2 mission, involves “various processes, including finalization of configuration, subsystems realization, integration, spacecraft level detailed testing and a number of special tests to evaluate the system performance on earth
• James Webb Space Telescope = 1. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is scheduled to be rocketed into orbit later this year (2021) 2. Most powerful infrared telescope of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) 3. A successor of the Hubble Telescope 4. An international collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Canadian Space Agency 5. The telescope will study the atmospheres of a wide diversity of exoplanets 6. It will be launched on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket from French Guiana in South America
Herschel Space Observatory Telescope
• An infrared telescope, launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency
• It also orbits the Sun similar to how Webb would
• The primary difference between Webb and Herschel is the wavelength range: Webb goes from 0.6 to 28 microns, while Herschel covers 60 to 500 microns
• NASA’s IXPE Mission = 1. Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer (IXPE) 2. A joint effort of NASA and the Italian Space Agency 3. It will study the most extreme and mysterious objects in the universe – supernova remnants, supermassive black holes, and dozens of other high-energy objects 4. It will help observe polarized X-rays from neutron stars and supermassive black holes 5. NASA’s Other Recent Missions- Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART), Mission Lucy (Jupiter Trojan Asteroids), Near-Earth Asteroid Scout
• Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) = 1. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) has launched its new Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD) 2. It is the first-ever laser communications system that will pave the way for future optical communications missions 3. The LCRD payload is hosted onboard the US Department of Defense’s Space Test Program Satellite 6 (STPSat-6) 4. It will be in a geosynchronous orbit, over 35,000km above Earth 5. The laser uses infrared light and has a shorter wavelength than radio waves 6. This will help the transmission of more data in a short time
• Log4Shell Vulnerability = 1. A critical vulnerability called Log4Shell, detected last week in widely used open-source logging software Apache Log4J, is now being exploited by attackers to target organizations all over the world, including India 2. In computer security, a vulnerability is a weakness which can be exploited by a threat actor, such as an attacker, to cross privilege boundaries (i.e. perform unauthorized actions) within a computer system 3. The vulnerability is dubbed Log4Shell and is officially called CVE-2021-44228 4. Log4j library - Log4j is open-source software maintained by a group of volunteer programmers as part of the nonprofit Apache Software Foundation and is a key Java-logging framework
• VIHANGAM = 1. An internet-based platform called ‘VIHANGAM’ integrated with a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) at Mahanadi Coalfields Limited (MCL) was inaugurated 2. The system consists of a Ground Control Station (GCS), an RPAS, an internet lease line of 40 Mbps, and a VIHANGAM portal 3. Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) is one subset of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) 4. There are three subsets of Unmanned Aircraft- Remotely Piloted Aircraft, Autonomous Aircraft and Model Aircraft
• Aerial Delivery Research and Development Establishment (ADRDE) = 1. A flight demonstration of the Controlled Aerial Delivery System of 500 kg capacity (CADS-500) was conducted by ADRDE 2. The CADS-500 is used for precise delivery of payload upto 500 kgs at predetermined location by making use of manoeuvrable capabilities of Ram Air Parachute (RAP) 3. ADRDE is a Research & Development laboratory of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) 4. It is involved in the development of paratrooper parachute systems
Polity & Governance
• Greater Tipraland = 1. Greater Tipraland is a region in Tripura 2. Several tribals are demanding to make the region a separate state 3. TIPRA Motha (Tipraha Indigenous Progressive Regional Alliance) and IPFT (Indigenous People’s Front of Tripura) came together for this 4. They want the Centre to carve out the separate state under Article 2 and 3 of the Constitution 5. Among the 19 notified Scheduled Tribes in Tripura, Tripuris (aka Tipra and Tiprasas) are the largest 6. The Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council (TTADC) was formed under the sixth schedule of the Constitution in 1985 to ensure development and secure the rights and cultural heritage of the tribal communities
Article 2 & 3
• Article 2: Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit.
However, Parliament cannot establish a new union territory by passing a law, which can only be done through a constitutional amendment.
States like Sikkim (previously not within India) became a part of the country under Article 2.
• Article 3: It empowered the Parliament to make laws relating to the formation of new states and alteration of existing states.
• Private Members Bill = 1. Rajya Sabha reserved its decision to allow the introduction of a Private Member’s Bill to amend the Preamble to the Constitution 2. The Bill seeks to change the words in the Preamble “EQUALITY of status and of opportunity” to “EQUALITY of status and of opportunity to be born, to be fed, to be educated, to get a job and to be treated with dignity” 3. Private member- Any Member of Parliament (MP) who is not a minister is referred to as a private member 4. Its introduction in the House requires one month’s notice 5. Private member’s bills can be introduced and discussed only on Fridays 6. The last time a private member’s bill was passed by both Houses was in 1970
• Public Accounts Committee (PAC) = 1. The Public Accounts Committee (PAC) has completed 100 years 2. PAC is one of the three Financial Parliamentary committees; the other two are the Estimates Committee and the Committee on Public Undertakings 3. The Public Accounts Committee was introduced in 1921 after its first mention in the Government of India Act, 1919 also called Montford Reforms 4. The Chairman of the Committee is appointed by the Speaker of Lok Sabha 5. It presently comprises 22 members (15 members elected by the Lok Sabha Speaker, and 7 members elected by the Rajya Sabha Chairman) with a term of one year only 6. Parliamentary committees draw their authority from Article 105 (on privileges of Parliament members) and Article 118 (on Parliament’s authority to make rules for regulating its procedure and conduct of business)
• The High Court and Supreme Court Judges Amendment Bill 2021 = 1. Introduced in Lok Sabha 2. Seeks to amend the High Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act, 1954, and the Supreme Court Judges (Salaries and Conditions of Service) Act, 1958 3. It seeks to bring clarity on when Supreme Court and High Court judges are entitled to an additional quantum of pension or family pension on attaining a certain age
• Kala Sanskriti Vikas Yojna = 1. The Ministry of Culture has launched a Scheme of Financial Assistance for the Development of Buddhist/Tibetan Culture and Art under “Kala Sanskriti Vikas Yojna (KSVY)” 2. Under this scheme, financial assistance is provided to the voluntary Buddhist and Tibetan Organizations 3. KSVY is an umbrella scheme under the Ministry of Culture for the promotion of art and culture in the country 4. It is a central sector scheme
• National Energy Conservation Awards = 1. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) felicitated various industrial units, institutions and establishments with 31st National Energy Conservation Awards (NECA) 2. On the occasion of National Energy Conservation Day (14th December) 3. To showcase India’s achievements in energy efficiency and conservation 4. A new award - National Energy Efficiency Innovation Awards (NEEIA) is also institutionalized 5. The BEE is a statutory body established through the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 under the Union Ministry of Power
• NDPS (Amendment) Bill, 2021 = 1. Introduced in the Lok Sabha 2. The bill will amend the Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 3. Objective of the Bill- To help victims of drug abuse to come out of addiction, To Decriminalise possession of a limited quantity of drugs for personal use 4. Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985- regulates certain operations - such as manufacture, transport, and consumption - related to narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
• NIPER Amendment Bill, 2021 = 1. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) Amendment Bill, 2021 2. Passed in Rajya Sabha 3. It seeks to amend the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research Act, 1998 which established the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research at Mohali in Punjab and declared it an institution of national importance 4. It seeks to accord the status of ‘institute of national importance’ to six more institutes of pharmaceutical education and research institutes – NIPERs – situated in Ahmedabad, Hajipur, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Guwahati and Raebareli 5. Rationalizes the Board of Governors from its existing strength of 23 to 12 members
• Hunar Haats = 1. The Ministry of Minority Affairs has organised the 34th Edition of Hunar Haat in Gujarat 2. Artisans from 30 states and union territories have participated 3. First launched in 2016 4. To protect and promote the country’s ancestral legacy of arts and crafts in the current global competition and to support the traditional artisans and craftsmen 5. Theme - Vocal for Local 6. These are organised by the Ministry of Minority Affairs under USTTAD (Upgrading the Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/Crafts for Development) scheme 7. USTTAD scheme aims to promote and preserve the rich heritage of the traditional arts & crafts of the minority communities
• SMILE Scheme = 1. SMILE - Support for Marginalized Individuals for Livelihood and Enterprise 2. Formulated by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment 3. It includes a sub-scheme - ‘Central Sector Scheme for Comprehensive Rehabilitation of persons engaged in the act of Begging 4. A pilot project of it is ongoing in 7 cities namely Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Indore, Lucknow, Nagpur and Patna 5. It is a new Scheme after the merger of existing Schemes for Beggars and Transgender 6. It will be a comprehensive scheme for persons engaged in the act of begging 7. According to the Census 2011, the total number of beggars in India is 4, 13,670 (including 2,21,673 males and 1,91,997 females) and the number has increased from the last census 8. West Bengal tops the chart followed by Uttar Pradesh and Bihar at number two and three respectively
• Legal Age of Marriage for Women = 1. The Union Cabinet cleared a proposal to bring uniformity in the marriageable age of men and women 2. By amending the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act (PCMA), 2006 and other personal law, the legal age of marriage of women will be raised from 18 to 21 years 3. In India, the minimum age of marriage was prescribed for the first time by the law known as the Sarda Act, 1929, It was later renamed as the Child Marriage Restraint Act (CMRA), 1929 4. In 1978, the law was amended to raise the minimum age of marriage to 18 years for girls and 21 years for boys
• Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojna = 1. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the extension of the Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojna (PMKSY) till 2026 2. With an outlay of Rs 93,068 crore 3. It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (Core Scheme) launched in 2015 4. Centre- States will be 75:25 per cent, In the case of the north-eastern region and hilly states; it will be 90:10 5. It has three main components- Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP), Har Khet ko Pani (HKKP), and watershed development
• Jaitapur Nuclear Reactors = 1. The Centre has given in-principle (first step) approval for setting up of six nuclear power reactors (capacity of 1,650 MW each) at Jaitapur in Maharashtra 2. Key component of the strategic partnership between India and France 3. Jaitapur would be the world’s most powerful nuclear power plant
• Water Innovation Challenges Initiative = 1. The second edition of water innovation challenges was announced to address the global water woes through innovations 2. It was announced by the Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog, and the Royal Embassy of Denmark to India as part of the Indo-Danish Bilateral Green Strategic partnership in 2020 3. The winners of the challenges will also represent India at the International Water Congress 2022
• Right to Be Forgotten = 1. The Union Government informed the Delhi High Court that the international legal concept of the Right to Be Forgotten is evolving in India and it comes under the Right to Privacy 2. In the Puttaswamy v. Union of India case, 2017, the Right to Privacy was declared a fundamental right by the Supreme Court 3. Right to be Forgotten is the right to have publicly available personal information removed from the internet, search, databases, websites or any other public platforms, once the personal information in question is no longer necessary, or relevant
• Breastfeeding-friendly Tags = 1. The Breastfeeding Promotion Network of India (BPNI) launched the National Accreditation Centre (NAC) for Breastfeeding Friendly Hospitals 2. BPNI is a 30-year-old organisation for protection, promotion and support of breastfeeding in India 2. The move came in the wake of the latest National Family Health Survey (NFHS) showing a further increase in caesarean deliveries 3. It will help in reducing neonatal mortality and will impact our Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) 4. According to the latest NFHS (2019-21), only 41.8% of mothers were able to breastfeed within the first hour of birth and provide skin-to-skin contact to the baby shortly after birth
• Election Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2021 = 1. Passed in the Lok Sabha 2. Seeks to link electoral roll data and voter ID cards with the Aadhaar ecosystem 3. It provides for amendment of section 23 of the Representation of People’s Act, 1950, enabling the linking of electoral roll data with the Aadhaar ecosystem 4. To curb the menace of multiple enrolment of the same person in different places 5. Concerns- In the absence of Aadhar the government would be able to use voter identity details for disenfranchising some people and profile the citizens
• Meendum Manjappai scheme = 1. Launched by Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M.K. Stalin 2. To promote the use of cloth bags by the public and discourage the use of plastic bags 3. This awareness campaign on using ‘yellow’ cloth bag or ‘manjapai’ as it is called in Tamil
• SAHAY scheme = 1. The Chief Minister of Jharkhand, Hemant Soren has launched a Sports Action toward Harnessing Aspiration of Youth (SAHAY) scheme 2. Aimed at nurturing young sporting talents in Maoist-hit districts of the state 3. This scheme has been launched to curb the Left Wing Extremism (LWE) which affected 19 of the state’s 24 districts
• Perform, Achieve, and Trade Scheme = 1. Introduced in 2008 2. A recent report released by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE) mentions that the Perform, Achieve, and Trade (PAT) scheme is not effective 3. It was introduced to improve energy efficiency in Indian industries and consequently reduce greenhouse gas 4. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE)- public interest research and advocacy organisation based in New Delhi
• Kyhytysuka Sachicarum = 1. New Marine Reptile 2. Kyhytysuka translates to ‘the one that cuts with something sharp’ in an indigenous language from the region in central Colombia where the fossil was found 3. Ichthyosaur is the member of an extinct group of aquatic reptiles, most of which were very similar to porpoises in appearance and habits
• Issi Saaneq= 1. New Dinosaur Species 2. Researchers have discovered the first dinosaur species that lived on Greenland 214 million years ago (Late Triassic epoch) 3. This medium-sized, long-necked dinosaur was a predecessor of the sauropods, the biggest land animals ever to have thundered across our planet 4. The new species lived during an important time in Earth's history 5. It will help the researchers to understand the climatic changes according to that time
• Mount Semeru volcano = 1. Mount Semeru volcano of Indonesia erupted which killed at least 14 persons and left dozens injured 2. Semeru, also known as the Great Mountain - is the highest volcano in Java and one of the most active 3. Indonesia, with the maximum number of active volcanoes in the world, is prone to seismic upheaval due to its location on the Pacific’s Ring of Fire 4. The Ring of Fire also referred to as the Circum-Pacific Belt, is a path along the Pacific Ocean characterized by active volcanoes and frequent earthquakes 5. Other Major Volcanoes of Indonesia- Mount Merapi and Mt. Sinabung
• Kasturirangan Committee report = 1. On Western Ghats 2. The Government of Karnataka has informed the Center government that the state is opposed to the Kasturirangan Committee report 3. Report has proposed 37% of the total area of Western Ghats to be declared as Eco-Sensitive Area (ESA) 4. Eco-Sensitive Areas (ESAs) are located within 10 kms around Protected Areas, National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries 5. ESAs are notified by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) under Environment Protection Act 1986 6. The report recommended a blanket ban on mining, quarrying, setting up of red category industries and thermal power projects
• World Soil Day = 1. ICAR (Indian Council of Agricultural Research) – Central Coastal Agricultural Research Institute (CCARI) celebrated ‘World Soil Day’ (WSD) on 5th December 2021 2. Recommended by the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) in 2002 3. 5th December was chosen because it corresponds with the official birthday of H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, the King of Thailand, who officially sanctioned the event 4. FAO gives two awards in line with this day- The King Bhumibol World Soil Day Award and The Glinka World Soil Prize
• Earth’s Black Box = 1. Australian scientists and artists are going to make a black box of planet 2. To hold the world accountable for their actions by creating a black box of the planet 3. It will be constructed in Tasmania, an Australian island state off the south coast 4. It will be made with 3-inch thick steel and covered with solar panels 5. It will collect climate-change-related data like land and sea temperature measurements, species extinction, energy consumption, human population, ocean acidification, and atmospheric CO2 levels
• Great Indian Bustard (GIB) = 1. The Centre has approached the Supreme Court seeking modification of its order directing that all transmission cables in the habitat of the Great Indian Bustard (GIB) be laid underground 2. It is the State bird of Rajasthan and is considered India’s most critically endangered bird 3. Its population is confined mostly to Rajasthan and Gujarat 4. International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List: Critically Endangered 5. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES): Appendix 1 6. Convention on Migratory Species (CMS): Appendix I 7. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972: Schedule 1 8. Project Great Indian Bustard- It has been launched by the Rajasthan government with an aim of constructing breeding enclosures
• Buxa Tiger Reserve = 1. West Bengal 2. A Royal Bengal tiger was sighted at the Buxa reserve - a first such sighting in 23 years 3. Buxa Tiger Reserve is situated in the Alipurduar Sub-division of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal 4. It was created in 1983 as the 15th tiger reserve of India 5. It was declared as a National Park in January 1992 6. The northern boundary of Buxa Tiger Reserve runs along the international border with Bhutan 7. The main rivers flowing across the Tiger Reserve are Sankosh, Raidak, Jayanti, Churnia, Turturi, Phashkhawa, Dima and Nonani 8. Some important species found in the reserve are Indian Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), Leopard (Panthera pardus), Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) etc
• Draft Resolution on Climate Change = 1. India and Russia opposed a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) draft resolution on climate change 2. The draft resolution sought to create a formal space in the Security Council for discussions on climate change and its implications on international security 3. India said that it was an attempt to shift climate talks from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to the Security Council and a “step backward” for collective action on the issue
• Biological Diversity (Amendment) Bill, 2021 = 1. Tabled in the Parliament 2. The amendments seek to decriminalise certain provisions and bring more foreign investments in the chain of biological resources, including research, patent, and commercial utilisation, without compromising the national interest 3. The bill looks to relax certain rules in the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 4. Nagoya Protocol - It is mandated that benefits derived from the use of biological resources are shared in a fair and equitable manner among the indigenous and local communities
• Gharials = 1. The Department of Punjab Forest and Wildlife Preservation, in collaboration with the World-Wide Fund for Nature-India (WWF-India), have released a lot of 24 gharials (Gavialis Gangeticus) into the Beas Conservation Reserve 2. A type of Asian crocodilian distinguished by their long, thin snouts. Crocodilians are a group of reptiles that includes crocodiles, alligators, and caimans 3. India has three species of Crocodilians- Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus): IUCN Red List- Critically Endangered, Mugger crocodile (Crocodylus palustris): IUCN- Vulnerable, Saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus): IUCN- Least Concern 4. All the three are listed on Appendix I of CITES and Schedule I of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 5. Saltwater Crocodile populations of Australia, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea are included in Appendix II of CITES 6. Primary Habitat: Chambal river (a tributary of Yamuna) 7. Secondary Habitat: Ghagra, Gandak River, Girwa river (Uttar Pradesh), the Ramganga river (Uttarakhand), and the Sone river (Bihar)
• Olive Ridley Turtles = 1. Researchers of the Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) are carrying out tagging of Olive Ridley turtles at three mass nesting sites – Gahirmatha, Devi River mouth, and Rushikulya 2. The Olive ridley turtles are the smallest and most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world 3. These turtles are carnivores and get their name from their olive-colored carapace 4. They are best known for their unique mass nesting called Arribada 5. They are found in warm waters of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian oceans 6. Protection Status - Wildlife Protection Act, 1972: Scheduled 1, IUCN Red List: Vulnerable, CITES: Appendix I
Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)
• It is a subordinate organization of the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, established in 1916
• It has its headquarters at Kolkata and 16 regional stations located in different geographic locations of the country
• Flex Fuel Vehicles = 1. The Government has advised the Automobile Manufacturers in India, to start manufacturing Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFV) and Flex Fuel Strong Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FFV-SHEV) complying with BS-6 Norms in a time-bound manner 2. Flex-fuel vehicles (FFV) have engines that can run on flexible fuel, a combination of petrol and ethanol, which can include up to 100% ethanol 3. When FFV is integrated along with strong hybrid electric technology, it is referred as FFV-SHEVs 4. The policy is expected to reduce the demand for petroleum products 5. India presently imports more than 80% of its petroleum requirement 6. The Bharat Stage (BS) are emission standards instituted by the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from motor vehicles
• Askot Wildlife Sanctuary = 1. Pithoragarh district of Uttarakhand 2. Declared as the Askot Wildlife Sanctuary Eco-sensitive Zone (ESZ) 3. The Askot Wildlife Sanctuary was established to protect the endangered flagship species Musk Deer and its habitat 4. The Askot Wildlife Sanctuary is also known as Musk Deer Park
• Kazhuveli wetland = 1. Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu 2. Declared as the 16th Bird Sanctuary 3. The declaration was made under subsection (1) of section 18 of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 4. The Kazhuveli wetlands is referred to as the 2nd largest Brackish Water Lake in South India, only after Pulicat lake
• Haiderpur wetland = 1. Bijnor, western Uttar Pradesh 2. Recognised under the 1971 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands 3. Uttar Pradesh is now home to 9 Ramsar wetlands 4. The wetland has also been identified under Namami Gange, a central flagship, as a model wetland along the Ganga
Indices and Reports
• Worldwide Cost of Living report = 1. Compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) 2. It compares the cost of living indices in different cities 3. The Israeli city of Tel Aviv topped the rankings for the first time, overtaking last year's leader Paris, which is now at a second-place along with Singapore 4. The index is benchmarked against prices in New York City 5. In India, Ahmedabad, Gujarat has been listed in the top ten cheapest cities of the survey 6. Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)- The Economist Intelligence Unit is the research and analysis division of The Economist Group, which is the sister company to The Economist newspaper
• World Inequality Report 2022 = 1. Released by the World Inequality Lab, which aims to promote research on global inequality dynamics 2. India is now among the most unequal countries in the world 3. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are the most unequal regions in the world 4. Europe has the lowest inequality levels 5. India stands out as a poor and very unequal country- The top 1% of the population holds more than one-fifth of the total national income in 2021 and the bottom half just 13%
• Reports of Global Arms Trade = 1. By Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) 2. SIPRI tracks global arms trade, three Indian companies are among the world’s top 100 for combined arms sales in 2020 3. The three Indian companies are Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Indian Ordnance Factories, and Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL) 4. The USA has the highest number of companies in the top 100 worldwide 5. China was second at 13 %, followed by the UK at 7.1 % 6. Russia and France were fourth and fifth with 5 % and 4.7 % respectively 7. India’s share of arms sales globally in 2020 was 1.2 %
• Good Governance Index 2021 = 1. On the occasion of Good Governance Day (25th December), the government released the Good Governance Index 2021 2. The index was prepared by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG), Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions 3. GGI is a comprehensive and implementable framework to assess the State of Governance across the States and UTs which enables ranking of States/Districts 4. It is based on ten sectors and 58 indicators 5. Gujarat has topped the composite ranking in the Good Governance Index 2021 covering 10 sectors, followed by Maharashtra and Goa
• State Health Index for 2019–20 = 1. Fourth edition 2. Released by NITI Aayog 3. Title- Healthy States, Progressive India 4. The State Health Index is an annual tool to assess the performance of states and UTs, which has been compiled and published since 2017 5. It is a weighted composite index based on 24 indicators grouped under the domains of ‘Health Outcomes’, ‘Governance and Information’, and ‘Key Inputs/Processes’ 6. Larger States- In terms of annual incremental performance, Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Telangana are the top three ranking states 7. Smaller States - Mizoram and Meghalaya registered the maximum annual incremental progress 8. Union Territories- Delhi, followed by Jammu and Kashmir, showed the best incremental performance 9. Overall - The top-ranking states were Kerala and Tamil Nadu among the ‘Larger States’, Mizoram and Tripura among the ‘Smaller States’, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu (DH&DD) and Chandigarh among the UTs
• Indian Navy Day = 1. Every year, Indian Navy Day is celebrated on 4th December 2. To respect the Indian Navy’s counter-attack in Operation Trident during the Indo-Pakistan war in 1971 3. The Indian Navy was established in 1612 by the East India Company 4. This year, the Navy plans to celebrate the theme Swarnim Vijay Varsh to celebrate the 50th anniversary of India’s victory in the 1971 war 5. Operation Trident- It was a counter-attack by the Indian Navy on the Karachi harbor during the Indo-Pakistan war in 1971 6. Indian Navy is headed by the President of India as its Supreme Commander 7. Indian Navy’s Motto is - Sam no Varunah
• Indo-Pak War: 1971= 1. National Cadet Corps (NCC) has announced to conduct ‘Azadi ki Vijay Shrankhla aur Sanskritiyon ka Mahasangam’ event as part of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav (75th Anniversary of India’s Independence) 2. Under Azadi ki Vijay Shrankhla' program, the Bravehearts of the Indo-Pakistan 1971 War are being honoured at 75 locations throughout the country
• Exercise Ekuverin = 1. The 11th Edition of Joint Military Exercise between India & Maldives has been started at Kadhdhoo Island, Maldives 2. India and Maldives have been conducting Exercise Ekuverin meaning ‘Friends’ in the Maldivian language since 2009 3. It focuses on enhancing interoperability between the two forces for carrying out counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations in a semi-urban environment under the United Nations mandate
• VL-SRSAM = 1. The Vertical Launch Short Range Surface to Air Missile (VL-SRSAM) was successfully flight tested by the Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) for the second consecutive time since February this year 2. Launched from the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur 3. Quick reaction surface-to-air-missile 4. Indigenously designed and developed by DRDO for the Indian Navy 5. The key DRDO facilities that contributed to the development of the system are the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) and Research Centre Imarat (RCI), both from Hyderabad, and Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), based at Pune
• Pinaka-ER = 1. The DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organization) successfully test fired the Pinaka Extended Range (Pinaka-ER) Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) 2. The Pinaka, a Multi-Barrel Rocket-Launcher (MBRL) system named after Shiva’s bow, can fire a salvo of 12 rockets over a period of 44 seconds 3. The new incarnation of pinaka represents one of the few examples of an evolutionary process being followed with an indigenous Indian weapon system
• Pralay Missile = 1. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has successfully conducted maiden flight test of a new indigenously developed surface-to-surface missile ‘Pralay’ 2. India's first conventional quasi-ballistic missile 3. A quasi-ballistic missile has a low trajectory 4. It is a derivative of the Prahaar missile programme, which was first tested in 2011 5. Prahaar is a surface-to-surface missile with a range of 150 km
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
• HIV attacks CD4, a type of White Blood Cell (T cells) in the body’s immune system.
• T cells are those cells that move around the body detecting anomalies and infections in cells.
• The CD4 count of a person infected with HIV reduces significantly.
• World AIDS Day 2021 = 1. Observed on 1st December every year all over the world 2. To spread awareness about the disease and remember all those who lost their lives to it 3. It was founded in 1988 by the World Health Organization (WHO) 4. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic disease caused by the infection of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 5. (HIV) damages the human immune system 6. There were an estimated 37.7 million people living with HIV at the end of 2020 7. Theme for 2021: ‘End inequalities. End AIDS’
• Paika Rebellion = 1. 1817 2. The Centre government has said that the Paika rebellion cannot be called the first War of Independence 3. In 2017, the Odisha state cabinet had passed a proposal to formally urge the centre to declare the Paika rebellion as the first war of Independence 4. The Paikas (literally ‘foot soldiers’), were a class of military retainers who had been recruited since the 16th century by kings in Odisha 5. Recruited from a variety of social groups to render martial services in return for hereditary rent-free land (nish-kar jagirs) and titles 6. The Paika Bidroha (Paika Rebellion) of 1817 took place nearly 40 years before the first sepoy mutiny
• 4th January: World Braille Day
• 21st March: World Down Syndrome Day
• 2nd April: World Autism Day
• 23rd September: International Day of Sign Languages
• 10th December: Human Rights Day
• International Day of Persons with Disabilities = 1. Every year on 3rd December 2. The annual observance of this day began in 1992 after it was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly resolution 47/3 3. In 2006, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) was also adopted 4. The theme for 2021- ‘Leadership and participation of persons with disabilities toward an inclusive, accessible, and sustainable post-Covid-19 world’
• 65th Mahaparinirvan Diwas = 1. The Prime Minister has paid tributes to Babasaheb Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar on Mahaparinirvan Diwas 2. Parinirvana, regarded as one of the major principles as well as goals of Buddhism, is a Sanskrit term that means release or freedom after death 3. As per the Buddhist text Mahaparinibbana Sutta, the death of Lord Buddha at the age of 80 is considered as the original Mahaparinirvana 4. 6th December is observed to commemorate the unfathomable contribution to society given by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar and his achievements
• 1857 Uprising = 1. A memorial-museum is being built by the Haryana government at Ambala to honour the martyrs of the 1857 uprising 2. To immortalise the bravery of those unsung heroes who never got credit for scripting the first revolt 3. The revolt is known by several names: the Sepoy Mutiny (by the British Historians), the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion (by the Indian Historians), the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, and the First War of Independence (by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar)
• Ramanujan Prize = 1. The Ramanujan Prize for Young Mathematicians from developing countries has been given to Professor Neena Gupta 2. She is a mathematician at the Indian Statistical Institute in Kolkata and has been awarded for her outstanding work in affine algebraic geometry and commutative algebra 3. Ramanujan was born on 22nd December 1887 in a village Erode, Tamilnadu 4. Ramanujam made substantial contributions to the analytical theory of numbers and worked on elliptic functions
• Durga Puja in Kolkata = 1. Inscribed on the UNESCO’s Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) of Humanity 2. It is the first festival in Asia to achieve recognition as UNESCO ICH of Humanity 3. This coveted list is made up of those intangible heritage elements that help demonstrate the diversity of cultural heritage and raise awareness about its importance 4. The list was established in 2008 when the Convention for Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage came into effect 5. Other than the Durga Puja there are 13 Traditions in India recognised by UNESCO as ICH 6. UNESCO announced the Harappan city of Dholavira in Gujarat as India’s 40th world heritage site
• Goa Liberation Day = 1. The Indian Navy conducted a Seminar to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee (50 Years) of the liberation of Goa 2. Goa Liberation Day is celebrated on 19th December every year 3. Marks the occasion when the Indian armed forces freed Goa in 1961 from 450
Goa- Wildlife Sanctuaries and National Parks
• Dr Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary
• Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary
• Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary
• Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary
• Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary
• Mollem National Park
• years of Portuguese rule 4. The Portuguese colonized several parts of India in 1510 but by the end of the 19th-century Portuguese colonies in India were limited to Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, and Anjediva Island 5. On 30th May 1987, the territory was split and Goa was formed. Daman and Diu remained a Union Territory 6. 30th May is celebrated as the Statehood Day of Goa
• Sankalp Smarak = 1. Andaman & Nicobar 2. A Sankalp Smarak was dedicated to the nation exactly 78 years (29th December 2021) after Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose's arrival to India 3. Netaji escaped British surveillance from Kolkata on 16th Jan 1941 and stepped back on Indian soil after nearly three years, at Port Blair Aerodrome on 29th Dec 1943 4. On 30th December 1943, he hoisted the national flag for the first time on Indian soil, at Port Blair
• Lucknow = 1. Defence Minister Rajnath Singh has laid the foundation stone of the BrahMos Aerospace cruise missile manufacturing unit 2. Also laid the foundation of DRDO Defence Technology and Test Centre in Lucknow 3. BrahMos is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India and the NPOM of Russia
• T-Setu = 1. Chief Minister of Odisha, Naveen Patnaik has inaugurated the state’s longest bridge, ‘T-Setu’ 2. Built over the Mahanadi River in Cuttack District, Odisha 3. The bridge in the shape of the English alphabet ‘T’ was constructed at a cost of Rs 111 crore 4. The 4-km-long bridge connecting Gopinathpur in Badamba, Baideswar in Banki to Singhanath Pitha in Cuttack
• 3 new districts in Nagaland = 1. Tseminyu, Niuland and Chumoukedima 2. With the addition of the three new districts, Nagaland will now have 15 districts 3. Tseminyu sub-division in Kohima district has been upgraded to a district 4. Niuland and Chumukedima have been carved out of Dimapur district