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5G in telecom

Date: 29 December 2021 Tags: Miscellaneous

Issue

The 5G telecom services will be rolled out in cities such as Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Pune, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Gurgaon next year.

 

Background

The government is currently in talks with telecoms and industry experts on the sale and use of radio frequency spectrum over the next 10 years.

 

Details

The 5G is the latest upgrade in long-term evolution (LTE) mobile broadband networks. It works in low, mid and high frequency spectrum bands.

 

Low bands

  • The lower band spectrum has the advantage in terms of coverage and speed of Internet and data exchange but its speed is capped at 100 Mbps.

  • These spectrums may not be suitable for specialised needs of the industry. It can however be installed for commercial cellphone users who may not have specific demands.

 

Mid bands

  • The mid band has issues in terms of coverage area and penetration of signals but offers higher speeds compared to the low band.

  • This band can particularly be used for building captive networks that can be moulded into the needs of that particular industry.

 

High bands

  • The highest speed of all the three bands is offered by high-bands. However, it has extremely limited coverage and signal penetration strength.

  • The speed of high-bands has been tested to be as high as 20 Gbps while the maximum internet data speed in 4G has been recorded at 1 Gbps.

 

India’s position in 5G race

  • India started the process of rolling out 5G technology as early as 2018. It aimed to make use of better network speeds and strength that the technology promised.

  • Private telecom companies such as Reliance Jio Infocomm, Bharti Airtel and VI have been asking the DoT to make a roadmap for spectrum allocation and 5G rollout.

  • The main concerns for private companies are that two of the companies do not have the required cash flows and adequate capital to carry out rapid modernisation.

 

Technology

  • South Korean giant Samsung has taken the lead in building 5G hardware equipments needed for companies to roll out the services.

  • Chinese companies such as China Unicom had started 5G trials as early as 2018, and have rolled out the commercial services.

  • Companies like AT&T and Verizon in US have rolled out 5G services in the country. It has been able to expand the services to 60 cities by 2020.