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Constitution Day

Date: 29 November 2021 Tags: Constitution

Issue

The constitution Day of India was celebrated on November 26. It was on this date that Constitution of India was adopted.

 

Background

The constitution of India came into effect on January 26, 1950 after being adopted on 26th November 1949.

 

Details

The Ministry of Social justice proposed in 2015 to celebrate this date with an aim to promote constitutional values among citizens.

 

History of Indian constitution

  • The duty of drafting a constitution for India was given to the Constituent Assembly. Dr BR Ambedkar was appointed as the chairman of drafting committee.

  • The drafting committee studied constitution of more than 60 countries before formulating. Sir BN Rau was the advisor to the committee.

  • January 26 was chosen for adoption because it was on this day in 1930 that the Purna Swaraj resolution was adopted at the Lahore Session of the Congress.

 

Influence of constitution of different countries

  • UK: Rule of law, Parliamentary form of governance, single citizenship, bicameralism, cabinet system, prerogative writs.

  • US: Fundamental Rights, judicial review, independence of judiciary, office of vice-President, removal of President.

  • Canada: Appointment of governors, residuary powers in centre, federal character, advisory jurisdiction of Supreme Court.

  • Australia: Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse, concurrent list, joint sitting of Parliament.

  • Ireland: Method of election of president, DPSP, nomination of Rajya Sabha members.

  • South Africa: Amendment of constitution procedure, election of members to Rajya Sabha.

  • Soviet Union: Ideals of justice (social, economic and political), Fundamental duties.

  • France: Liberty, equality and fraternity, idea of republic.

  • Germany: Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency.

  • Japan: Procedure established by law.

 

Criticism of Indian constitution

  • It is argued that Constituent Assembly was not elected by people and it was not representative of all sections.

  • The Constituent Assembly was completely dominated by Congress party. There was no scope for varied opinions.

  • It was said that Constituent Assembly was completely dominated by lawyers and politicians. There was no representation for people of different professions.