According to recent report published by the International Energy Agency (IEA), India emitted 2,299 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in 2018, a 4.8% rise from the previous year. This was primarily due to a rise in coal consumption.
Highlights of report
- India related Facts: India’s CO2 emissions growth was higher than that of United States (US) and China, the two biggest emitters in the world.
- India’s per capita emissions were about 40% of global average and contributed 7% to global carbon dioxide burden in 2018.
- India’s energy intensity improvement declined 3% from 2017 levels, even as its renewable energy installations increased 10.6%.
- Global energy Scenario: The energy consumption in 2018 increased at nearly twice average rate of growth since 2010.
- It was driven by robust global economy and higher heating and cooling needs in some parts of the world. Energy efficiency also saw lacklustre improvement in 2018.
- Higher electricity demand is responsible for over half of growth in energy needs. Demand for all fuels also has increased and is led by natural gas. Even solar and wind posted double digit growth.
- China, US and India together accounted for nearly 70% of the rise in energy demand.US had largest increase in oil and gas demand worldwide. Gas consumption in 2018 jumped by 10% from 2017, making it fastest increase since the beginning of IEA records in 1971.
- Global CO2 emissions: As a result of higher energy consumption, CO2 emissions rose 1.7% in 2018 and hit new record. Global energy-related CO2 emissions totaled 33.1 billion tons in 2018.
- US is largest emitter, was responsible for 14%, followed by China. China, India and US accounted for 85% of the net increase in emissions.
- CO2 emissions declined in countries such as Germany, Japan and France. There is expanding use of solar, wind and other renewable energy sources.
India’s commitments to Paris Agreement
As per its commitments to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), India has promised to reduce temissions intensity of its economy by 2030, compared to the 2005 levels. It has also committed to having 40% of its energy from renewable sources by 2030. As part of this, install 100 GW of solar power by 2022. For India to implement its climate pledge it will cost at least $2.5trillion, around 71% of combined required spending for all developing country pledges.